There are many predictions as to what the earth is able to sustain and although the population continues to increase, this could overall have a negative effect on the quality of how we live. As more people are born, the need for everyday supplies increases as well. China, being the most populated country with 1,379,302,771 people takes the lead for most paper consumed, coal usage, and manufacturing of cars. Although they take the lead in those areas, the United States is not far behind them with 326,625,791 people. Since a rise in population for both countries, there is a higher demand for produce and available water, more waste being produced by individuals, and more toxins that end up in the environment. With that being said, problems such as deforestation, air pollution, and landfills can arise. Air pollution is the presence in or introduction into the air of a substance which has harmful or poisonous effects (Oxford Dictionaries, 2017). The causes of air pollution are typically from human activities such as mining, construction, industrial work, agriculture, etc. and the burning of fossil fuels. This could be a result from coal, oil, natural gasses, or even gasoline for vehicle usage. However, there are possibilities that natural processes such as volcanic eruptions and wildfires may also pollute the air we breathe. The occurrence of them is to be very unlikely, but they usually have a local effect on the environment, unlike human activities that are universal causes of air pollution (2017). Since China is the leading country for coal usage, their air quality tends to be rather poor. The constant fumes that are seeping into the air leave less oxygen for people to breathe. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a good index for how much fossil fuels and other pollutants are released. According to CO2-Earth, the total average CO2 worldwide is about 400 ppm despite it being distributed in different areas (2017). Nearly 90% of Chinas biggest cities failed to meet air quality standards in 2014 and in result of the contaminated air, a roughly estimated 1.6 million people die a year from those pollutants. The United States may not be number one for the worst polluted country in the world but that does not mean bad things are not happening. While we are much lower on the list than China  is in terms of what percentage of pollutants are emitted into the air, a 2016 report by the American Lung Association found more than half the country’s population lives at risk of breathing in the dangerous air. That’s approximately about 166 million Americans who are at risk of asthma, heart disease, reproductive problems, cancer, and even permanent respiratory damage, all thanks to the air they are breathing (M, 2017). There are nearly 200,000 early deaths in the U.S. each year that are caused by residential and commercial sources. Deforestation has been on the rise over the years and is a major problem in both China and the United States. Since forests cover about 30% of earth’s surface it is important for them to remain intact. Deforestation occurs when humans clear or remove all together large areas of forestland to make room for land to be used for non-forest uses such as farming, ranches, factories or urban areas. With the cutting down of trees, this leaves many species of animals with nowhere to call their home. According to National Geographic, 80% of earth land animals live in forests and without there being trees; their species would not be able to survive (Barlas, 2017). Many animals rely on trees for shelter from predators and for reproduction purposes. For reproduction, this means using trees that may have holes in the wood to make nests for eggs or for babies to remain safe in while the parents go out in search of food. If these are tampered with, animals may be forced to relocate causing hunting and mating patterns to be thrown off. But not only does deforestation effect animals, it also drives climate change. Tall trees provide shelter for forest soil which is naturally moist. Without the protection from the sun, the soil dries out leaving it unable to use. If the soil gets too dry, the levels of carbon and nitrogen nutrients that are found in topsoil become tampered with. Those are needed along with the other makeup of topsoil such as leaf litter, animal waste, roots that have become withered, and other decaying vegetation that are all used to recycle nutrient elements and prepare the soil for the following generations of plant life (Radford, 2013). Trees also play a critical role in both the water cycle and absorbing greenhouse gases that fuel global warming. Fewer forests means larger amounts of greenhouse gases entering the atmosphere—and increased speed and severity of global warming (Radford, 2013). For the water cycle, trees help return the water vapor back to the atmosphere and provide shelter to soil by blocking sun rays during the day and holding in heat during the night time. These changes to forest like can overall cause a fluctuation in temperature. Nearly 28% of China is desert and that number seems to be growing each year. As the number continues to grow, there is a rapid rate at which deserts are starting to merge with one another because of the continuous deforestation that is taking place. Clear cutting and overgrazing have turned areas of Qinghai province into desert as well. Unfortunately, with there being fewer trees, there comes more floods. Although, as of recently, deforestation is blamed for a 4% decline in rainfall, 15% in the dry season, in the Xishuangbanna area of Yunnan, where 50% of local forest have been deforested (Gallagher, 2012). With China being the leading consumer of paper, this means dozens of trees are being cut down a day. As the population continues to grow, there is a greater need for businesses, homes, and farming land. Because of these factors, the giant panda, loved by locals and many from across the world, is lauded as the main symbol for Chinas deforestation movement. The annihilation of their habitat results in them being removed from the wild and put into a home that is more suited to their needs. According to Sean Gallagher from the Asia Society, “Their habitat has been almost decimated by humans and there is little chance for their future survival in the wild. To date, not one giant panda has been successfully reintroduced into the wild”. The giant panda is just one of many species that is suffering from the current increasing trend in global extinction. The United States has less than 5% of the world’s population but consumes more than 30% of the world’s paper. In the Northeast part of the United States, tourism, water quality, erosion, and recreation can all be affected greatly. Professor James Acheson of the University of Maine studied the forest harvesting practices of four different types of forestland owners. One group that was researched harvested wood and then later on sold their land for profit. Another group built houses after chopping down trees and fixing up the wood making it usable. Between the years of 2000 and 2005, the study showed that about 40% of the land that people harvested went towards housing units. In other words, the deforestation of that land eliminated the possibility of ever growing a forest on the land where people built their homes again. Most of the U.S. uses the deforested land for building and or planting of crops. Although the need for crops is great, the fact that the soil can become ruined is a huge factor that should be thought about before planting and or cutting down trees. Landfills are a rapidly growing problem everywhere due to population increase. They are the most commonly utilized waste management option. Nowadays, landfills are constructed to where they can include clay and /or plastic lining to contain water that has percolated through a solid and then leached out. Although findings differ slightly, in 2006 approximately 26 percent of materials entering landfills were paper products, 18 percent food scraps, 16 percent plastic, 9 percent rubber, leather, and other textiles, 7 percent each of yard waste, metals, and wood, and 6 percent glass (2006). Despite landfills being something on their own, there are two very important problems that can arise. The first problem from landfills is air pollution. I am not going to go into much about air pollution just because I have already discussed it in detail earlier but the main gist of what happens is hazardous contaminated air emissions rise and spread. There are multiple chemicals that release but the most serious one is methane. Methane gas is naturally produced from the decay or organic matter. Pressure builds up and spreads through the soil and in turn it becomes contaminated. In a recent study of 288 landfills, off-site migration of gases, including methane, has been detected at 83% of these landfill sites. Methane is a more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide (2006). The second problem that arises from landfills is groundwater pollution. Leakage from landfill leachates produces large number of toxic chemicals that find their way into fresh water waterways. Since most of the time landfills are located in or around larger bodies of water, the detection of the pollution can be difficult. With that being said, there is a possibility of the contaminated water finding its way into homes. Overall, China and the U.S. together produce about 30% of the world’s trash.Governments throughout China started to build landfills with standard designs and pollution prevention measures in the 1990s, but the official facilities cannot meet rising demand for waste disposal from growing urban populations (Yifang, 2015).  With that, the appearances of waste products around China have increased dramatically. For example, since the early months of June 2015, Changdian Village in Beijing, China has had excavators swiftly cleaning away at a landfill that had approximately 45,000 cubic meters of waste sitting just about 20 meters away from a river. This river is a populated river that is used by dozens of families and businesses as a source of fresh water. At one point the waste accumulation exceeded what the landfill was capable of holding and spilled over 5 meters deep into the river. As the population continues to go up, more and more residents now see this is a place to throw stuff away but it is harmful to their environment since there is no form of cleanup method being used to do anything about the toxins. As of early 2017, China uses about 830 pounds of trash per capita annually. Before the invention of landfills, most Americans would use stuff then throw it into a dump pile which would be later burned in the open and left. As time went on the very basic invention of a landfill where the stuff would burn but there was no way to cover the after product up was made. Just recently within the last few decades did a more sophisticated and advanced design of landfill appear with an ingenious designed that allowed the products to sit, fill, and close inside of a container. The newest version allows the garbage to be compacted to make room for more waste and to also prevent the attraction of bugs. The U.S. uses approximately 2100 pounds of trash per capita annually. Sadly, Nevada ranked highest in trash per person with 38.4 pounds per person per day. Although, the number of landfills in the United States has steadily declined over the last 2 decades (but has remained relatively constant since 2002); yet, the average size of landfills has increased (2012). The overall capacity in some areas for landfills is limited while others have a sufficient amount of space for trash. As more Americans are born and as more people relocate to the U.S. the need for more landfills is a must. But unfortunately, the process to build these contraptions is a very costly and time-consuming. This is mainly due to regulations that require increasing engineering measures to ensure the safety of the workers and community opposition. Everything that was mentioned in this paper has an effect on the planet in some negative way. High population has polluted the air quality from generation to generation. An excessive use of energy to power homes and businesses is still on the rise. Deforestation that is harming plants and animals to make room for residential buildings, industrial buildings, and agriculture then helps contribute to Climate change from pollutants of the deforestation.  All of these things will only get worse if the population is not controlled. One thing worth mentioning is that China has started to decrease the population by setting rules on how many children a family is able to have. It is called the “One Child Policy”. This essentially states that a family is only allowed to have one child. If they want to have more it has to be for farming/work purposes. Typically the males are used for the more difficult labor whereas girls are used to help clean and do stuff to help the mother and any grandmothers but this rule is only applied to a few cities.