The most key feature of securing the
crime sight is to safeguard the sight with least contamination and interruption
of physical evidence. The first comeback to an event shall be speedy and systematic.
On onset, the officer should examine the scene and treat the event as a crime
Write or log information such as address/location, time, date,
type of call, parties involved.
Any pupil or vehicles leaving the crime scene`
Approach the scene carefully, scan the entire area to thoroughly
assess the scene, and note any possible secondary crime scenes. Be aware of any
persons and vehicles in the vicinity that may be related to the crime.
Make initial observations (look, listen, smell) to assess the
scene and ensure officer safety before proceeding.
safety and physical health of officers and other individuals, near the sight.other
officer need to identify and control and dangerous situations.
Ensure that there is no immediate threat to other responders —
scan area for sights, sounds, and smells that may present danger.
Approach the scene in a
manner designed to reduce risk of harm to officer(s) while maximizing the
safety of victims, witnesses, and others in the area.
Survey the scene for
dangerous persons and control the situation.
personnel and call for assistance/backup
to a primary survey; a first survey of the scene is conducted to prioritize
evidence collection. During this survey, the investigator will find possible evidence;
write notes and detained photographs of the scene and the evidence with capacity.
The crime scene is written to record situation such as positon of impermanent
furniture, any smells presents, temperature of the scene. For this process to
take action investigators make an evidence-free pathway.
Crime Scene Photography
The key part of
photography is duties that the crime scene investigator performs. Visual communications
are important for the quality, to the point and precise photographs of both the
scene and the evidence exactly the way it was found. Photography of the scene
and of evidence is one of the first procedures performed at a scene. For
Ø Take the photographs so that the area
and items of evidence will be identified and oriented with other areas in the
Ø An extreme close-up photograph may be
taken of a small item, such as a bloodstain, hair, fabric stain or fingerprint
in blood. For an extreme close-up shot, the item should be photographed at
least twice, once with a scale (ruler) and at least once without a scale.
Ø Investigators should use rulers and
markers at crime scenes to identify items or areas being photographed. The
markers may be cones with numbers or letters affixed to the cone, plastic
evidence cards or index cards which have been marked identifying the evidence
being photographed. When using markers, take a photograph of the object or area
with and without the marker.
Ø When evidence has been identified as
having been moved from its original position at a crime scene, the investigator
should make note of that. If the investigator is directed to photograph the
evidence item in its original location, a detailed note should be made that the
item was photographed in the area where it was originally located.
sketches are formed on agency forms or
Ø Sketches/diagrams drawn to scale
should identify the scale ratio on the diagram.
Ø Sketches/diagrams should be drawn
using pencil, blue ink or black ink.
Ø Crime scene sketches/diagrams should
contain the minimum following information on the drawing:
Investigator’s name or initials.
Incident location address.
List of evidence and the type of packaging used
The SOCO team has noticed every unusual thing in the
crime scene to look for the clue and have collected as the evidence for
forensic examination. During the collection, all evidence is sorted and
packaged within a specific type of packaging to preserve the authenticity and
to improve credibility to present it for the future criminal investigation.
Throughout the investigation the following evidences were collected:
black phone within a case
in the body caused by knife
powder in the bag
Once the evidences were collected, they were
put on the specific packaging system based on the characteristics and types of
evidence requires for further preservation. Choosing correct size and materials
for the evidence is important to preserve the evidence for long time. The
following types of packaging were used for the each type of evidence to place
in and appropriate label was used to document it later:
In order to maintain safety, sharp metal like
knife is packaged to a plastic tube to strap that risky weapon without causing
any harm to the evidence and reducing the chance of tempering.
In order to collect DNA evidence blood swabs
were used. After swabbing within the blood it was dried within the scene and
then packaged in the swab boxes separately and then were put within different
The chemical bottle was packed within a
polythene bag to prevent further split and maintain the authenticity of
Besides the above mentioned evidence, the
rest of the evidence were put within brown
paper bag with separate label and then were sealed to maintain the
authenticity of the evidences.
Key procedure followed to maintain health and
safety at the crime scene
When the investigation team arrives at the
crime scene it is important to follow some safety procedure to ensure health
and safety throughout the crime scene and prevent further contamination. The
general key procedure used in the crime scene is to arrive at the crime scene
with caution. The investigation team logged the dispatch information before
entering the scene, made primary observation and used protection to avoid
Before the investigation began, the team had
scanned the crime for the any hazard things, smell or sounds that may cause
danger to the team. As the crime scene happened in the main prep room
containing dangerous chemicals and other objects, the investigation team
scanned for hazardous materials before entering the crime scene. To serve the
purpose of preventing contamination, the investigation team made limited access
to the scene while processing for information and followed the established
entry and exit route. After that a specific area was secured to collect
evidence while taking caution to health and safety issues. In order to do so,
disposable Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) was used by every member to
prevent any contamination. Disposable point was established between the crime
scene and evidence collection area to dispose of the PPE to avoid further
contamination. The risk of getting contaminated during the crime scene was also
assessed and effective precaution like: using protective uniform, breathing
mask and googles were used to minimize health risk. These procedure helped the
SOCO’s to remain protected from any dangerous materials from chemical split in
air and floor from the lab and kept their health protected.
From the scenario that I assessed from the
crime scene in the Nottingham College, it seems that, the victim was attacked
by someone with knife and made wound to her body. As her purse is being
shattered, may be the perpetrator was looking for something from the victim and
came into fighting.
Key procedures to collect evidence from a
When crime investigators enter to a crime
scene, they follow some procedure to effectively collect the evidence. At
first, the major crime scene is being cordon off to protect it from general
public and to avoid unnecessary entering. After that the investigation team
assess the perceived risk to enter the scene. They consider if there is any
trace of dangerous materials, bomb or other threat existent to the crime scene.
After assessing the risk, the team uses PPE to protect themselves from any type
of health and safety risks. After taking PPE initial observation is made from
outside to finally check if there is any threat existent to the crime scene.
Entry and exit log is maintained to restrict and record the entry of the
members entering to the scene and to avoid any unnecessary viewing. Once the
entry and exit log is established, common approach path is created to restrict
the accessibility to the crime scene. Yellow tape is usually used with specific
signs and banners.
Once the investigators enters the crime scene
they started to take evidence from the victim, floor and throughout the crime
scene. Blood, any broken or unusual objects, dangerous things, knifes or other
sharp material, footprint, fingerprint etc is commonly being collected as the
form of evidence. While collecting the evidence, each thing is collected
separately without any contact from the collectors and is being packaged in a
specific containers according to their form. For example, blood sample is
collected through swabbing and then kept in a zipped plastic bag. Proper
collection of evidence and maintaining in the proper packaging system ensures
the validity and long lasting of the evidence. Sketches, notes and photographs
is also taken to ensure the collection of every information necessary to solve
a particular crime scene as well as to provide further reference in future.
Justification of using the evidence
To avoid further risk and to maintain valid
evidence it is important to follow some specific evidence collection procedure.
However, the rationale for using key procedures of collecting the evidence is
Cordon off the area:
This procedure helps to create restriction
towards the entry and exit to the crime scene and minimize the access of people
to the scene to prevent unwanted tempering with the evidence.
By using risk assessment the investigation
team can use health and safety initiatives before entering into a scene. This
helps to reduce health risk and saves time in the investigation.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) helps the
team to prevent from any contamination and keep the evidence protected without
Observation of the scene before entry:
Before entering to the crime scene, the
investigation team observe the crime scene in order to perceive any dangerous
material, smell or sound exists in the area that may hamper the collection of
Entry and exit log:
It helps to keep proper tack of the evidence
collected by the member of the investigation team along with justifying the
evidence in future to the court.
Common approach path:
Helps to restrict the use of path by the
people in the crime scene that ultimately protects main areas before exposing
to the public which may contaminate the evidence.
Evidence collection methods and packaging
Based on the nature and structure of the
evidence (soild, liquid, blood etc), different evidence collection method is
taken. The collected evidences were kept in a specific packaging based on their
nature to preserve them for a longer period of time and to remain valid for the
Sketches and notes:
This helps the investigation team to lead
further clue in future. After clearing the crime scene, sketches and notes
still can provide useful information regarding the crime scene.
Photographs of the crime scene helps to get
every tiny details necessary for the investigation once outside from the crime