The current research focused as a
quantitative approach for evaluating the performance of office building in
conceptual design stages. A unique computational framework was proposed for
investigation of energy performance factor of the building. The framework was
implemented in a comparative study between reference building as base case and
actual proposed building which is in under study. Starting by simulation of
energy of reference office building to figure out values under the suitable
climate of city Karachi with the given performance criteria. For simulations of
that building, a computational model was generated using the computational
tools and measured the effect of quantitative variables.

 

This study was based on computational tools
and techniques for the aim of establishing a new framework for predicting the
working of performance base and responsive design strategy for the designer in
the world. Parametric modeling, environmental simulation and computational
decision tools were incorporated in an automated workflow for generating and
exploring the design space of the office building.

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At first, the parameter initialization
process was conducted for the base case. Then, parametric models were
established for the base case office building, which have fixed fenestration
ratio and glazing type on all sides of façade. Same design parameters
controlled both observations of energy performance. For next stage of
hypothetical consideration of building, the variable randomization process simplified
the simulation model by generating random values for relative compactness,
window to wall ratio, and glazing type. The impact of these parameter which
were the main important variables were selected as performance base result. The
values for the energy (kWh) of alternatives building options were stored in worksheets
by each of its parametric models for analysis.

 

Pakistan’s
cosmopolitan city Karachi, is located on the eastern coast of the Arabian Sea.
It is the capital of the province of Sind and the former capital of Pakistan.
With a population of nearly 18.5 million Karachi is the largest city of
Pakistan. And importantly, the financial capital of
Pakistan. It is Pakistan’s premier center of banking, industry, and trade. It
is also Pakistan’s largest corporations, including those that are involved in
shipping, automotive industry, entertainment, the arts, fashion, advertising,
software development and medical research.

 

Climate
of Karachi is Hot-Dry. The
temperature levels usually remain high especially from March to November.
Average temperature of the city is between 24°C
to 26°C.

The building is located in a densely
populated area in Karachi. It is a reinforced concrete framed building with ten
stories above ground and twelve stories total, including two basements. The
building is being used as an office building, therefore it is evaluated for the
Life Safety (LS) level of seismic performance, meaning that its occupants
should survive the design level earthquake and be able to exit the building
safely. The reinforced concrete frame consists of flat slab with drop panel and
having outer peripheral beams. The building construction was completed in 2011.

 

The
building system consists of flat slabs with drop panels and outer peripheral
beams. RCC wall lift cores are eccentrically placed at the back side of the
building (way from the street shown below). The foundations are reinforced
concrete isolated spread footings with retaining walls on the periphery. The
building is relatively new and is in reasonably good condition. No condition
assessments or repairs have been made.

 

Typical stories height is 10′-0″ (3 meters).
The strength of concrete and reinforcement are taken as: f’c = 4,000 psi
(slabs, beams and columns), f’c = 5,000 psi. 

After
the expression of fundamental components and goals of office buildings and
integrated design approach, this part of chapter presents how integration of
multi-performance criteria can be applied and how usage of computational
methods be implemented in the conceptual stage of design. It is significant
that knowledge and the key points of buildings stated already have been applied
in this chapter in order to develop the model. Within this framework, there are
two main steps that establish the model: “shape of building” and “performance evaluations”.
Figure 3.2

Among
these steps, the system of model work. Moreover, when its steps are put in
order as a principle, it can be said that first of office building`s different
shapes were generated according to generative functions, which were controlled
by design variables (particular spaces). In second stage, each shape was
assessed by the performance criteria, which were defined according to defined
design goals. Finally, data that were attained by performance evaluations of
each shape were noted as information component in order to discover for
suitable design alternatives.