The question ‘How did contemporary
technologies influenced late 19thand early20th century classical and
modern architecture? The purpose of this investigation is to establish the
effectiveness of previous type of architecture style with Modern architecture
style. Focusing on this period from 1890 to 1930 when the growth of heavy
industry brought a flood of new building materials such as cast iron, steel and
glass which then led architects and engineers to develop mute modern design and
devised structure in function, size and form.
Modern Architecture known as the key aspect
of technology and materials invention. This investigation will focus mainly on
the invention of steel and how it removed decoration and raised buildings and
become an essential aspect of modern design. It had its roots from cast-iron
frames that began to make their appearance in the tall office buildings in1880s
in Chicago (Spasoff, 2012). Thus, in order to get this broad scope for
investigation the central question, I would also ask if:
influenced by Modern Technology? OR Modern Technology influenced Modern Architecture?”
2.2 MAIN AIMS
First Aim: What were the other influences contributing to modern architecture?
famous motivator behind this new architecture was due to the evolution of
building technology, particularly the production of steel that enabled large
frame structures to be built mainly in this period when the invention of
technology began and modern design. This has resulted in construction,
facilitating large-spans for warehouses and tall buildings. Thus, new materials
and techniques encouraged architects to breakdown away from the neoclassical
and eclectic designing during the late 19th century when European
and American architecture were dominated, especially by the time when Chicago
Turbine Tower signals the end of neoclassical interest and the beginning of
Modern architecture. Architectural technology considered as component of
architecture and building engineering and it is often viewed as a distinct
discipline or sub-category.
Second Aim: What were the other technical developments
influences contributing to modern architecture?
The Modern construction became much more
complex because walls, floors and roofs were all built up from many elements to
include in a structure, insulation and waterproofing often were used or
considered to be a separate layers or elements of construction (Curtis, 1987).
Aim: Focusing on steel. Did it influence Modern architects?
How? When? Where?
Due to the large amount of information and
resources I found according to my research question I will be focusing mainly
on ‘New Technology’ specifically the invention of Steel and Steel Frames building.
It comes from cast-iron, then Bessemer the invention of steel, then Reinforced
concrete by August Perret which made a patterned layout in 1890. However,
concrete is an excellent material for the use of tension with the use of steel.
The invention of steel lead to an understanding in tension as well as in
compression which allowed Le Corbusier and other architects to make large
windows in elevation. Steel frame in a
high-rise building were only possible because of two 19th century achievements:
first was the invention of safe elevator, and second was the ability to mass
produce material (Glancey, 2015). New
York and Chicago have experienced a rapid growth of population in urban centers
which led to a situation that making skyscrapers development not only possible, but
necessary for progress.