Opportunities and Challenges in Vehicular
Ad-hoc Networks: A Review

A
review on latest development on VANET

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Kamlesh
Gautam

Abstract

Vehicular
Ad-hoc NETwork (VANET) is used in many metropolitan and smart cities to perform
inter-vehicular communication for stationary conveyance, moving conveyance,
autonomously operated conveyance, dealing drones, phone and other ad-hoc
networking systems of organizations. So, that we can achieve a lot of
cognition, like as to reduce the Reaching Time (RT) of fire fighter troops, ambulance,
drones and to reduce the number of accidents/disasters in
cities. It plays a vital role in the efficient management of
city traffic by preventing traffic jams and effective control of
drones as well. VANETs are deployed in two dimensional as well as three
dimensional networks in accordance to the applications to attain energy efficient routing and easy handoff. The determination of
appropriate topology and characteristics of VANET is
of prime importance for densely deployed 2D/3D networks. VANET is compatible
with 5G technologies and able to deliver high throughput suffering lower delay
providing higher energy efficiency.

The
objective of this paper is to present a review on latest development on VANET to
spread the awareness of this emerging field. It is an attempt to review and
present the work which has already been done by eminent researchers of this
field. The aim is to motivate researchers to contribute in
this field.

Abbreviation

VANET, VC, TWU, BTS, RSU

1. Introduction

The
core consideration about VANET is to   wireless
access between vehicles with roadside applications. Nowadays it is used in many
cities for VC (Vehicular Communication). The VC is a process of communication
between vehicles. These vehicles are may be road side vehicles, unmanned aerial
vehicles, under water vehicles and also on water vehicles.  The VC is applicable to improve the safety in
transport and to achieve traffic efficiency. It is also applicable to convey
information about stationary and moving conveyance, automatically operated
conveyance, dealing through drones, phones and other ad-hoc network
systems of edifices, watercrafts, aircrafts, etc. This technology
is used in Japan, USA, and few European countries for army, navy, air force
projects. It is also efficiently used in lot of industries of MEMS (micro
electro mechanical system) of these countries to achieve economical and
organizational goals as per requirements. It is also useful for the marketing
application through drones. In present competition timing the fast delivery is
a crucial requirement of the market. So as to reduce the reaching time of
drones the VC is very helpful.

As per the data
analysis of WHO the vehicular disaster are increasing continuously after 2000
in maximum nations, which should decrease 2. On the other hand according to
current warfare environment of global nation’s (e. g. USA, China, South Korea,
North Korea, Russia, UK, India, Pakistan, etc.) air weapon expansion is
required. Hence, VC system is helpful to decrease and increase the vehicular
disaster in all countries as per requirements. This VC system is not possible
without advance networking of VANET to unceasing security and rapid data
swapping.

Just
from last two years the research papers are increasing extensively on IEEE Xplore
about the following things of VANET. These are: The Deployment of VC,
Characterization of VC, Two dimensional and/or Three dimensional scenario of
VC, Routing in VC, Energy consumption of VC, Hand-off in VC, Modulation scheme
in VC, System operating margin in VC, Security in VC, Velocity Change in VC,
Delay in VC, Throughput in VC, Clustering in VC, Packet delaying in VC,
Congestion in VC. In these researches, to judge actual estimate of execution of
the VC, we implement it on various network and marching simulators. Hence, the
research and demand of vehicular communication system is increasing broadly.
And the VC system will increase more broadly in overall world. Because the VC
system is not established till now in lot of number of countries.

The
principle purpose of this review paper is to provide help and motivation in the
development of artificial intelligence in the field of vehicles. Hence, the
focus of this review paper is centralized technically on the Deployment,
Characterization of the VANET in 2D/3D with energy efficient routing and hand
off.

The
arrangement of this review paper is produced as following: second segment
present overview about the VANET, third segment present review about deployment
in VC, fourth segment present review about characterization of VANET in VC,
fifth segment present review about simulation tools, sixth segment present application
of VC, seventh segment present review on feature research problems conclusion
of overall review paper finally.

2. VANET Overview

2.1 VANET Architecture

The
architecture of VANET is established with only three thinks V, TWU, and SD 1.
These are V (Vehicles, e.g. car, drone, submarine, etc.), TWU (Transport Way Unit,
e.g. roadside unit, airways unit, waterways unit), and SD (substructure
domain). The VC in this architecture can be established using wireless
standards like as IEEE 802.11p. In this architecture, TWU works as the router.
Which range (coverage) should be higher than vehicles range. In this VANET
architecture for VC the vehicles are established with OBU (On Board Unit). This
OBU is consisted with a lot of technologies (e.g. Global Positioning System,
Radio detection, Radar ranging, Laser technology, satellite communication, etc.)
So that vehicles can track location and situation of each other including
destination location. In these vehicles of VC an ELP (Electronic License Plate)
is induced. In this architecture an AOC (Authority of Certification) is exist.
So that, many services (e.g. security, TCP/IP) and applications can be
provided. Fig. 1 shows VANET architecture with an example of vehicular
communication (vehicle to vehicle communication) which is also indicating V2SD
(vehicle to substructure domain) and SD2V (substructure domain to vehicle)
linking.

Fig. 1 VANET Architecture

 

2.2 Brilliant Transportation System

Brilliant
transportation system (BTS) is an example of artificial intelligence. In this, a vehicle itself is capable to
transmit information, receive information and also works as a router for the
broadcasting of information. This BTS is can be used in roadways traffic
system, drones traffic system, etc. The BTS provides two type of VC. First is
V2V (vehicle to vehicle communication) and second is V2SD (vehicle to substructure
domain) or substructure domain to vehicle (SD2V) communication. Fig. 1 shows
this concept with help of roadways traffic system. For the transmission of
information, V2V uses multi-hop communication and V2SD uses single hop
communication. Here inter-vehicle communication is also classified into two
categories. First is naïve broadcasting and second is intelligent broadcasting.
First one is applicable to produce beacons at regular intervals. But in this,
the collisions of messages are occurring due to the large generation of
messages. Whereas in the second method. The messages are generated only on
demand. Hence, the collisions of messages are reduced in the second method. The
high bandwidth linking is provided between TWU and vehicles in this system. So
that TWS can detect the speed of vehicles. If the speed of a vehicle is greater
than the range of TWS, then TWS produce a visual alarm message for the vehicle.

2.3. VANET Standards

Product
development is possible with help of VANET Standards. These are used to assist
users for comparison and verification of products. As per requirement of used
protocol these standards (e.g. DSRC, WAVE) are used. Dedicated short range
communication (DSRC) standard is processed by USA but also using in Japan and
Europe. It is short to MRCS (medium range communication services). DSRC 11 is
utilized for V2SD and V2V.  It includes
seven channels, where each channel has 100MHz band. In this standard data rate
was not higher. But due to BTS functionary high data rate is required. To
overcome this problem a new standard is developed, that is Wireless access in
vehicular environment (WAVE).

3. Deployment in VC

The
VC system is currently advancing their TWU deployment. The deployment in VC
with minimum budget is a demanding research work.

Velasco
et al. 1 introduce a RSU (Road Side
Unit) deployment of combination of
three different approaches. First is deploying RSUs on static locations, second
is deploying RSU on public mobile transportation, and last is deploying RSU on
fully controllable vehicles owned by the local government. In which firstly, a
map of city area into a grid graph is designed. Then, a new optimization
problem is formulated and shows its NP-hardness. Also, a new polynomial running
time approximation algorithm for the problem is formulated and show that the
performance ratio is at least half of the best possible ratio.

In 3, Zhang et al. study an on-road base station
(SCS) is proposed, to exploit renewable energy harvesting, mm Wave backhaul,
and content caching techniques to achieve flexible, sustainable, and
cost-effective vehicular networking. With promising 5G technologies, SCSs can
enable “drop-and-play” deployment, green operation, and low-latency content
delivery, paving the way to cost-effective vehicular networking. In this study,
heterogeneous vehicular network architecture has been introduced to provide
high capacity and better QoS to vehicle users, by efficiently exploring the
specific advantages of SCSs and MBSs. In addition, a hierarchical management
framework has been designed, where energy management, content caching, and
traffic steering are performed in both large and small time scales to deal with
the dynamics of energy supply and traffic demand. Case studies on cache size
optimization and sustainable traffic-energy management have been conducted to
provide insights into the practical design of 5G-enabled vehicular networks.

 

Zheng et al. 4 study provides a
comprehensive performance analysis and network design under a stochastic
geometry framework. In which connection outage and secrecy outage probabilities
are analyzed for a typical legitimate link, and show that enabling more FD
receivers increases the connection outage probability but decreases the secrecy
outage probability. Based on the analytical results of the dual probabilities,
they prove that ASLN, NST and NSEE are all quasi-concave on the fraction
of FD receivers, and maximize each of them by providing the optimal fraction. 4
investigate the cooperative or multi-antenna FD receivers, where additional
degrees of freedom might be gained not only in alleviating the
self-interference but also in designing the jamming signals. The benefit of FD
receiver jamming techniques can be further exploited by jointly optimizing the
allocation between FD and HD receivers and the jamming transmit power of each
FD receiver, given that the latter also strikes a non-trivial tradeoff between
reliability and secrecy.

 

In 5, Cavanagh
et al. study Ad hoc electrical
networks are formed by connecting power sources and loads without planning the
interconnection structure (topology) in advance. They are designed to be
installed and operated by individual communities-without central oversight-and
as a result are well-suited to addressing the lack of electricity access in rural
and developing areas. However, ad hoc networks are not widely used, and a major
technical challenge impeding their development (and deployment) is the
difficulty of certifying network stability without a priori knowledge of the
topology. We develop conditions on individual power sources and loads such that
a micro-grid comprised of many units will be stable. We use Brayton-Moser
potential theory to develop design constraints on individual micro-grid
components that certify transient stability-guaranteeing that the system will
return to a suitable equilibrium after load switching events. Our central
result is that stability can be ensured by installing a parallel capacitor at
each constant power load, and we derive an expression for the required
capacitance.

 

 

4. Characterization of VANET in VC

In 6, Kim et al. model the
spatiotemporal propagation characteristics of data under VC is crucial for
developing data-enabled applications to ameliorate traffic security and
mobility. Existing analytical approaches assume instantaneous information flow
propagation to simplify the communication constraints arising from the traffic
flow dynamics. Consequently, information flow propagation characteristics such
as the information flow propagation wave have not been analyzed. They are
necessary to describe the interactions with the underlying traffic flow
dynamics. An analytical model, which integrates an epidemic model with a
traffic flow model, is developed to account for such interactions. The proposed
model is able to capture the dynamics of information flow and traffic flow in
an integrated formulation that circumvents key analytical and numerical
challenges. Results from computational experiments demonstrate the
effectiveness of the proposed model and its ability to describe the dynamic
characteristics of information flow propagation along with the traffic flow
dynamics.

 

Naboulsi
et al.  7 Observe the instantaneous topology of urban vehicular
networks. Our large-scale complex network analysis yields results on the significant
limitations of the topology in terms of connectivity, availability, reliability
and navigability, at both network and component levels. We also unveiled how
the underlying structure of the vehicular network is composed of vehicles
gathered into small cliques connected to each other in a weak, intermittent
fashion. Overall, the vehicular network topology appears unfit to medium- and
long range delay-bounded data transfers, for which cars should resort to
traditional cellular communication. The vehicular network seems instead to best
fit delay-tolerant transfers within localized areas: in such cases, our results
let us advocate the adoption of carry-and-forward paradigms and/or the
deployment of RSUs, and stress the key role of MAC-layer protocols for channel
access and rate or power control. We also examined the connectivity properties
across different large-scale urban scenarios. Our comparative analysis allowed
us to draw conclusions on the impact of the road layout, traffic demand and
mobility representation on the vehicular network topology. We find that reduced
detail in the mobility model results in a significantly more connected network,
and can thus lead to important biases in the evaluation of networking
solutions. The city characteristics can also influence the topology of the
vehicular network, especially in terms of emergence of large components and
cliques. Concerning open issues and future perspectives, our study is
constrained to specific scenarios due to the lack of other mobility datasets
that are publicly available and yield similar characteristics. Additional
datasets are thus required in order to further generalize our conclusions. We
also remark that we focused on the instantaneous vehicular network
connectivity, and considered a computationally feasible disc signal propagation
model. The characterization of the temporal connectivity induced by
carry-and-forward transport paradigms and the impact of more realistic
propagation models are interesting directions to further extend our study.

 

Wang
ey al. 8 In intelligent CV networks, a hybrid communication architecture is used
which combines both centralized and ad hoc transmission schemes. In order
tomaximize the end-to-end delivery ratio while reducing the network overhead,
one important problem is to efficiently design the data forwarding algorithm to
guarantee the quality of data transmission. In this paper, by considering the
traveling information and vehicular space-crossing community structure, two
metrics, “space–time approachability” and “social approachability,” are defined
to provide the absolute and relative geographical information of the
forthcoming contacts, respectively. Then, a novel data-forwarding algorithm,
called approachability-based algorithm, is proposed, which utilizes two metrics
together for better routing quality. We evaluate the proposed
approachability-based algorithm utilizing San Francisco Cab spotting and
Shanghai Taxi Movement datasets. Simulation results show that the
approachability-based data forwarding algorithm can achieve better performance
than the popular data forwarding algorithms ZOOM and BUBBLE RAP in all the
interested scenarios.

 

5. Simulation tools

1) Mainstream
Models: Out of all surveyed papers mostly used simulator is
ns-2 12. It regards a packet as having been successfully received if the received
power exceeds a specified threshold while assuming a constant noise floor,
based on the chosen channel model. The current stable release of ns-2 is
version 2.35, which includes support for five well-known channel models: Friis
free-space path loss, two-ray ground, Nakagami-M, log-normal shadowing and
obstacle-based shadowing. ns-3, the successor to ns-2,also provides the same
set of channel models.

 

2) Custom
Channel Models: In 12 paper a custom simulator described. It is based
on a static transmission range model with consideration of the effects of
reflection and diffraction around buildings.

3) Unspecified
Channel Model Citations: In our literature review, we observe that no more
particular data is available on the choice of channel model. In fact, the
second-most common “channel model” is unspecified. So, it is crucial to find
out the generality of the simulation results available in these literatures.
However, of the reviewed papers lacking information on channel model
configuration, ten identify the simulation framework in use, which provides
some insight into which models which may have been used.

Surveyed algorithms and their validation
methodologies. Òn/só stands for òn ot simulatedó

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6. Application of VC

Now
a days VC provides applications for e-Safety, security, emergency, establishes
strong relations of producer with consumer, traffic management, stationary conveyance,
moving conveyance, automatically operated conveyance, driver comfort support, enhanced
maintenance, dealing through drones, maintenance, media services, marketing
through drones, fast delivery through drones,
gaming, micro electro mechanical system, e-shopping,
crime investigation, defense, and so on. VC produces applications for vehicle
manufacturers and consumers to avail superior facilities and services. VANET
uses P2P (Peer-to-Peer) applications 2 for providing services to the
customers.

7 Future research scopes and Conclusion

As we all know vehicles
are increasing in road ways, aerial ways and under water ways. The VC is
getting its momentum day by day. The deployment, characterization of VANET with
energy efficient routing is necessary for the safe and cooperative
transportation. Hence, the future work can be recommended in VC system for the
expansion of Vehicular cloud, Fault Tolerance, Mobility model, and MAC layer
protocol.

Several previous
surveys and taxonomies of deployment, characterization
of VANET with energy efficient routing in VC system, such as 12 and 2,
have identified the need to exploit more of the
unique aspects of the VC. This literature review includes wider application of
VC. While these opportunities are significant, meaningful progress in advancing
the state of the art in VC

is hampered by a
number of significant and fundamental shortcomings in the existing literature,
which are summarized below, and which need to be adequately addressed if robust
and reliable VC are to move beyond simulations and into large scale practical
deployment.

8. Reference

1      C. V.
Deployment et al., “A New Comprehensive RSU Installation Strategy for,”
vol. 66, no. 5, pp. 4200–4211, 2017.

2      P. M. Khilar
and S. K. Bhoi, “Vehicular communication: a survey,” IET Networks, vol.
3, no. 3, pp. 204–217, 2014.

3      S. Zhang, N.
Zhang, X. Fang, P. Yang, and X. Shen, “Self-Sustaining Caching Stations: Toward
Cost-Effective 5G-Enabled Vehicular Networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.
55, no. 11, pp. 202–208, 2017.

 4     T.-X. Zheng, H.-M. Wang, J. Yuan, Z. Han,
and M. H. Lee, “Physical Layer Security in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Under A
Hybrid Full-/Half-Duplex Receiver Deployment Strategy,” IEEE Trans. Wirel.
Commun., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 3827–3839, 2017.

 5     K. Cavanagh, J. A. Belk, K. Turitsyn, “Transient
Stability Guarantees for Ad Hoc DC Microgrids,” IEEE Control Systems Letters. vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 239–244, 2018.

6      Y. H. Kim, S.
Peeta, and X. He, “An Analytical Model to Characterize the Spatiotemporal
Propagation of Information under Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications,” IEEE
Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 3–12, 2018.

 7     D. Naboulsi and M. Fiore, “Characterizing
the Instantaneous Connectivity of Large-Scale Urban Vehicular Networks,” IEEE
Trans. Mob. Comput., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1272–1286, 2017.

 8     Z. Li, C. Wang, L. Shao, C. J. Jiang, and
C. X. Wang, “Exploiting Traveling Information for Data Forwarding in
Community-Characterized Vehicular Networks,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol.,
vol. 66, no. 7, pp. 6324–6335, 2017.

9       M.
Patra, R. Thakur, and C. S. R. Murthy, “Improving Delay and Energy Efficiency
of        Vehicular Networks Using Mobile
Femto Access Points,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 66, no. 2, pp.
1496–1505, 2017.

10      A.
M. Mezher and M. Aguilar Igartua, “Multimedia Multimetric Map-aware Routing
protocol to send video-reporting messages over VANETs in smart cities,” IEEE
Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 66, no. 12, pp. 10611–10625, 2017.

11      J.B.
Kenney, “Dedicated short-range communications (DSRC) standards in the United
States,” IEEE Proc., vol. 99, no 7,
pp. 1162–1182, July 2011.

12      C. Cooper, D.
Franklin, M. Ros, F. Safaei, and M. Abolhasan, “A Comparative Survey of VANET
Clustering Techniques,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 19, no. 1,
pp. 657–681, 2017.