Nanomachine Real Life Investigation

 

 

            It’s well discussed that the future of
medicine and health will be Nanomachines. “Nanomachines refer to robots
that can perform tasks on a molecular level (“LX Group”).”. The word nano
itself describes the actual size and dimensions of the object. Nano itself
means one billionth, also in exponential form its 10-9. But the plan
for the future with medicine is to have these little
Nanomachines operating inside your body to stop the cells who create cancer and
stop them before they create the actual cancer cell, sort of the way a white
blood cell works but instead of it being a natural process, it’s a machine that
carries the loads of medicine and cures it. If scientists can invent a
nanomachine that can tackle types of cancers and destroy them before they
become terminal, this would be a large step towards humans living longer lives
and not being bogged down by illnesses.

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What is the size of the Nanomachine? How big can
it be?

 

The size of the nanomachine has to be smaller than a capillary which is
the thinnest and smallest vein in the Human body. “Capillaries are small,
normally around 3-4µm, but some capillaries can be 30-40 µm in diameter. The
largest capillaries are found in the liver (Paxton 1).”. Now with this
information our nano machine has to be smaller than the smallest capillary, and
it also can’t just be smaller, it has to be small enough so that there is no
chance of clogging in the capillary, which is not only stopping the nanomachine
from delivering the payload, but can also cost even more damage by blocking up
a capillary so blood cannot travel through your body anymore. So, I chose to
make my nanomachine comprise of two different shapes, which are shown in
Diagram 1 and Diagram 2

 

Diagram 1

                           

 

 

 

 

 

Diagram 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diagram 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Calculating Area

To find the area of the nanomachine, we need to separate the two shapes
and find the area for each separate shape before we can calculate the total
area. We do this by first calculating the area of the Hexagonal prism and then
we calculate the area of the square pyramid twice because we have two square
pyramids.

 

Calculating the Area
of the Hexagonal Prism

The formula for finding the area of a hexagonal prism is A=. In this formula a means the base edge,
and h means height.

And
according to our nanomachine of the hexagonal prism it has a base edge of 0.15?m and a height
of 0.2?m.

Now let’s do the calculations which we find by using A=

If
the base edge = a then first we can change it to

Now
we can add the height which makes the equation into

Now
we take what we have which is

Then
we calculate it which we now end up with 29.691

A= 29.69134 Rounded up it’ll be 29.69

Calculating
Volume

The
formula for calculating volume in a hexagonal prism is

Yet
again a stands for base edge and h stands for height.

So,
if we put in the actual figures right now we would get

The
solution of that would be 11.69134.

So
V=11.69134. Rounded
up it’ll be 11.69.

Now we
found our Area and our Volume

A=29.69 and V=11.69.

 

Calculating the Area
of the two Square Pyramids

 

Calculating
Area

The
formula for finding the area of a square pyramid is

Now
let’s add in the lengths that we have, which makes our equation  

And
if we calculate it we end up with 2.36325 or rounded up is 2.36

Calculating
Volume

The formula for finding the volume in a square pyramid
is

Let’s add in the lengths that we have, which now makes
the equation.

And when that’s
calculated we end up with 0.21333, and rounding that up equals 0.21

Now since our volume and area is calculated we now
have

A=2.36 and V=0.21

Calculating
area of base

But
now we also have the total amount of area and volume of the hexagonal prism,
but we need to subtract the area of base from the square pyramids because the
hexagonal prism already has an area of base.

The
formula for base area in a square pyramid is

Now
let’s add in our base edge value of 0.8, which is

That
calculated equals 0.64or rounded up it is 0.64

Now
that we have that lets multiply 0.64 by two which gives us 1.28. 1.28 will now be the amount of area that we
subtract from the area of the two-square pyramid, which is 4.72.

So
4.72 1.28

=
2.9.

And
2.9 is now the total amount of area for the square
pyramids, while the total amount of volume is 0.21.

Now we can add the total area and
volume of the hexagonal prism to the total area and volume of the square
pyramids.

So, the total area of the hexagonal
prism is 29.69 and if we add the total area of the square
pyramids it is 2.9. Now 29.69  2.9 

Now the total
volume of the nanomachine would be the amount from the hexagonal prism 29.69 +
the amount of volume from the square pyramids 11.69. so 29.69+11.69.= 41.38.

So now
after all those calculations the Nanomachine has an Area of 32.59 and a Volume of 41.38.

 

 

 

What is the payload?

 

The payload will consist of antibodies.

“Antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins, are Y-shaped proteins that are produced by the
immune system to help stop intruders from harming the body. When an intruder
enters the body, the immune system springs into action. These invaders, which
are called antigens, can be
viruses, bacteria, or other chemicals. When an antigen is found in the body,
the immune system will create antibodies to mark the antigen for the body to
destroy. (“What are Antibodies”)”.

 

The antibodies will be
inside the nanomachine and when the nanomachine is near a cancel cell they
would be released and then destroy the cancer cell.

 

The payload will the amount of antibodies correspondent to volume. So,
there will be 41.38’s worth of antibodies in each nanomachine.

 

Degree of Accuracy

 

The nanomachine might not be the exact amount of area and volume because
I rounded up to 2 decimal places, which means that it would not be the most
accurate measurements and maybe could affect the productiveness of the
nanomachine and what it’s supposed to do. Also, it may not be realistic in the
sense where the square pyramids on each side will swivel back and forth to move
the nanomachine through the capillaries because I don’t know if that is
possible or if that is realistic, but that would be its main form of movement
throughout the capillaries.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

 

 

Group, LX. “What Are Nanomachines?” LX Group, LX Group, 25 Mar. 2012,
lx-group.com.au/what-are-nanomachines/.

 

University of South Florida. Hexagonal Prism. Florida, 2007.

 

Paxton, Steve, et al. “The Leeds Histology Guide.” Histology Guide,
University of Leeds, 1 Jan. 1970,
www.histology.leeds.ac.uk/circulatory/capillaries.php.

 

Robson, Kelly. “What Are Antibodies? – Definition, Function &
Types.” Study.com, Study.com, study.com/academy/lesson/what-are-antibodies-definition-function-types.html.

 

Size of the Nanoscale. (2010, November 19). Retrieved January 18, 2018,
from http://www.nano.gov/nanotech-101/what/nano-size

 

Szabo, Lianz. Rectangular Pyramid. 6 Mar. 2017.