Music is the leading of the
most popular audible stimuli examined in the past decade, which was approached as
a distracter (Brodsky & Slor, 2012; Ünal, Platteel, & Epstude, 2012) in
the beginning. Since listening to music while driving a car was considered as a
secondary task on top of driving, the influence of music on performance has
mostly been examined in the literature by being conducted both simulator studies
(Beh & Hirst, 1999; Brodsky, 2001; Brodsky & Slor, 2013; Febriandirza,
Chaozhong, Zhong, Hu, & Zhang, 2017; Ferdinand & Menachemi, 2014; Hughes,
Rudin-Brown, & Young, 2013; Ünal, de Waard, Epstude, & Steg, 2013; van
der Zwaag, et al., 2012) and game studies (Cassidy & MacDonald, 2010; North
& Hargreaves, 1999) together with mental effort (Ünal, Steg, & Epstude,
2012), task difficulty (Wang, Jimison, Richard, & Chuan, 2015) and
vehicular control (Brodsky, 2001). Drivers who listen to music drive slowly (Hughes,
Rudin-Brown, & Young, 2013), tend to reveal more traffic violations (Brodsky,

the other hand, it is not supported that music is included in the auditory
distracters in every result of the past studies. According to a systematic
review conducted in 2014 (Ferdinand & Menachemi), which is about the
secondary tasks in company with driving and their relationship with safety, when
31 studies carried out until 2012 were analyzed and compared to other secondary
tasks’ studies, the proportion which shows listening to music is unsafe is only
eight percent. It is also determined that listening to music while driving does
not impair driving performance (Ünal, de Waard, Epstude, & Steg, 2013),
even boost it when performing a driving task at medium difficulty level (Ünal,
Steg, & Epstude, 2012).

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was mainly manipulated in the previous studies in terms of familiarity (Jimison,
2014), tempo (Brodsky, 2001), intensity (Beh & Hirst, 1999), favorability
(Wiesenthal, Hennessy, & Totten, 2000), genre (Dibben & Williamson,
2007). According to music categorization in the literature, significant
evidences were provided by the fact that music tempo is associated with traffic
violations, familiar music enhances to exceed the speed limit, loud music as music
intensity alleviates driving performance. On the other hand, the influence of
music genre on driving, specifically on driving speed (Santoso, Maulina,
Adystia, & Oei, 2013), was not found. Furthermore, the association between age
and music genre among music listeners while driving was also examined in the
literature. The young adult age group which comprises of the majority of music
listeners on the vehicle mostly listens to pop music (Dibben, & Williamson,
2007), whereas a large majority of the elderly driver group prefer silence in
their vehicle; and elderly drivers who listen to music prefer to listen to easy
and rock music.