Lola GermanJanuary 15, 2017Quarter 2Book ReportLeviathan by Thomas Hobbes       Thomas Hobbes was born in Westport, England on April 5th of the year 1588. He managed to live an unusually long life for his time period. Dying at age 91, on December 4th, 1679. Hobbes’s literary masterpiece, Leviathan, was inspired by his fear. Specifically, the fear he felt during the tension of the English Civil Wars. A war causing immense division in the country, politically, religiously, and economically. The English Civil Wars begun in August of 1642, fought between Royalists and Parliamentarians basically over the system and manner of England’s governing. England was currently a monarchy being ruled by Charles I. Hobbes fled to France to escape persecution for being a Royalist and there he wrote Leviathan.Hobbes is known for his main political idea and belief that absolute sovereign power being the final authority is the solution to having peace in a nation. An idea that is often opposed to by man because of our sin nature. Part One of Hobbes’s book was about man and for Part Two he expands on a commonwealth. Simply put, a commonwealth is just a society/ country/ community. It is in man’s nature that although we seek and desire peace in our nations, our greed and thirst for power will inevitably over power that beyond any doubt. So, we set up systems or contracts to give us safety. Either In our humble we establish the rules/ guidelines or they’re forced upon us, but either way, they’re constantly at threat by our nature. So we need to have a contract and system in which we hand over our power to a sovereign power. The most important part of the contract being the sovereign having the authority to punish those of those who could derail the commonwealth. The only way a sovereign is profitable is if he is feared. Simply because mankind is motivated by fear. Being threatened by punishment is the only way to keep the commonwealth running smoothly.There are two ways of establishing a commonwealth; by force or by agreement. And there are three different types of sovereign authority. A monarchy, where rule and power is installed into one individual. An aristocracy, where a group of people is given power. Thirdly, a democracy, where the power lies within all the peoples and their willingness to unite for the sake of their government. Hobbes uses a Leviathan as a metaphor for an ideal functioning government. The idea of sovereignty ruling the people being the soul of the Leviathan. While the sovereign figure itself, one of those three, is the head of the Leviathan. This combination creates a system so secure and strong as if it were a Leviathan from the Bible.Hobbes’s work was incredibly controversial at the time, definitely opposed by many but also admired. People thought he was crazy but his thoughts and his work sparked questions and statements that are considered and studied to this day. He was like that first domino you knock over the knocks over all the rest going on and on. His work was essential in influencing people and governments established in the future, his thoughts are even present in our Constitution. Personally, the book did just not interest me. For me it just felt like old news, I get the whole “we need authority for our highest good” thing. Although, it had some very good points and I understand where he’s coming from. I agree with a lot of it and I admire Hobbes for speaking his thoughts in spite of the times and possible persecution. I just thought it needed a little bit more romance and vampires. Totally joking, but just not my cup of tea.