Lastly, Peter Gourevitch discusses his version of
procedural democracy in “International Trade, Domestic Coalitions and Liberty.”
He tries to understand why four countries reacted differently during the Great
Depression of 1873-1896. He tries to explain four different scenarios to reveal
the exact answer. He concludes that the social interests are in relation with
state structure. As prices fell and the industry continues to fall, Gourevitch
wants to justify the tariff strategy each country takes in with the change in
market. First, he discusses about the economic explanation during the Great
Depression. Tariffs come from the interests of the economy that effect public
policy. Next, the political system get in between interests and outcomes and people
differ in power. After is the economic ideology, which is the policy, based on
intellectual properties about economics and trading. Gourevitch uses these
explanations to justify the reasons with four countries. He states, “Mobilization
against socialism did not occur in the United States, or even in Britain and
France. Yet the pattern of policy outcomes in these countries was the same”
(307). Likewise, Germany has interests in high tariffs and favor national
security and economic transitions. France has a different agricultural and
industrial position than Germany and is against the market and high tariffs. In
comparison, Great Britain didn’t raise tariffs for agricultural and industrial
needs. They had consistent low tariffs. Finally, the United States contains low
agricultural tariffs and high industrial tariffs. Overall, by doing a
comparative analysis, Peter can see how each country had similar political
systems despite different policy outcomes. Overall, economic explanation by
itself is NOT sufficient in any way and having more influence on liberal
democracy results in substantial state structure.

            After listing all the evidence of each specific
democracy, the aspect of voting claims to be more democratic. After looking at
the preferred vision of participatory democracy, there are many contentions
surrounding voting being more democratic. Although Putnam displays positive
affirmation on this democracy, too much democracy would effect the government
negatively. If people were given too much freedom, they would vote on the
representative who could invest in their self-interest rather than social
interest. The freedom to flourish their self-interest can lead to selfish
demands and ultimately, a failure in the government system. Therefore, the
right amount of democratic structure for citizens is an ideal vision. 

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