Introduction

This report presents uses of passive and active fire protection systems
used in the oil and gas industry to minimize the risk of accidental fires. All
application will be set in accordance with British National Standards and
guidelines in order to apply the most efficient fire prevention techniques. The
applications of the fire control system will be set in accordance with
appropriate designing, operations, and maintenance of the entire manufacturing
facility in order to deliver sufficient fire prevention and awareness.

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Scope

This report presents fire prevention methods applied in the petroleum
industry to minimize the risk of accidental fires and designing, inspection and
maintaining of fire control systems. The fire response system should provide
early response in the event of fire to minimize the widespread of fires and
damage to property. Different methods of analytical application more extensive
to meet special situation will be briefly mentioned.

This report applies to oil and gas industries which are mainly
constructed in hazarders environments which accumulation of dangerous vapors
occurs. Enclosed areas, such as quarters buildings
and equipment enclosures, normally installed on this type platform, are
addressed. Totally enclosed platforms installed for extreme weather conditions
or other reasons are beyond the scope of this Report.

 

Objectives

·      Prevent escalation of
accidental of fires by implementing spacing that effectively separate the
process unit, process drainage system, buildings and large structure.

·      Avoid serious
injuries and loss of life by providing necessary means of approach for emergency
responders to a fire and access for workforces to isolate equipment.

·      Provide early
detection to prevent the spread of fire and warning devices and to enable
emergency systems to operate and shutdown.

·      Safeguard structural
steel by providing passive and active fire safety systems in dangerous areas

 

 

 

 

Oil and Gas Industry Codes, Standards and Recommended
Practices

Various establishments
developed standards, codes, specifications and recommended practices which are
approved by the government and oil and gas industry. Reasonable consideration
with latest edition of the publications must be considered while setting up fire
prevention applications like designing, installation and operation of fire
systems. Information provided on some of these publications listed below is not
all linked to the oil and gas industry some of these are not applicable to oil
and gas operations;

·      
Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 (HSWA),
Sections 2 and 3 

·      
Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations
2005 (SCR05), Regulation 14 

·      
Offshore Installations (Prevention of Fire and
Explosion, and Emergency Response) Regulations 1995 (PFEER), Regulations 5, 9,
12 and 13 

·      
Offshore Installations and Wells (Design and
Construction, etc), Regulations 1996 (DCR) Regulation 5 

·      
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ignition and Fuel Sources

 

The three fundamental sources that must be present for fire to ignite
are air (oxygen), fuel and source of ignition. Eliminating one of the three
sources prevents the like hood of developing an accidental fire.

Fuels

Fuel is categorized according to the type of fire they produce on the
basis of the material burring. To facilitate the proper use of extinguishers on
different types of fires, the Health and Safety has classified fires as
follows:

Class A Fires; are mainly
combustible materials like; cloth, wood, paper, rubber and plastics. These
materials are mainly found on offshore platforms. Building materials,
framework, fiber ropes, skids and Supplies-wood decking. Waste materials and
cleaning rugs and tarpaulins

Class
B Fires; are categorized as flammable liquids, gases
and grease. These materials are mainly found on offshore platforms e.g. Oils
and condensate, gas and vapors or hydrocarbons. Building materials, paint,
welding and cutting gases. Operating materials and heat transfer fluids,
hydraulic fluids, fuels, glycols and lubricants.

Class
C Fires; are mainly energized electrical apparatus. In
this particular case, electrical non-conductivity of the extinguishing agent is
important. The classification of the fire changes to Class A or B when
equipment is de-energized.

Class
D Fires; Class 0 fires are mainly combustible metals
like; zirconium, sodium, and magnesium.

Ignition Sources

Ignition arises due to sufficient heat transfer
to cause combustion. Element influencing resultant combustion are energy,
temperature, and exposure. The ignition sources that might be found on offshore
production are;

Chemical Reaction. The possibility of chemical reaction producing heat is likely. The heat
produced is likely to ignite the substances reaction on nearby materials.
Chemical reaction that is likely to occur on an offshore platform spontaneous combustion.

Offshore facilities producing sulfide are likely
to develop iron sulfide as a cause of corrosion. Spontaneous combustion when
exposed to air is likely to occur due iron sulfide producing a source of heat.

 

Fire prevention Practices

Well-designed facilities and training of safe operation producers can
best the protection against the occurrence of fire. The designed facilities
should operate to account for all the necessary risks associated like temporary
situation like workover, drilling and construction. The operating practices
must be able to eliminate sources of fuel in the event of a fire.

Facility Design

The facility must be
designed to provide mitigation in the event of a fire, stop ignition of those
that do esca and should also contain hydrocarbons. The following measures that
should be considered are;

Platform Safety System; Platform Safety System employs an important
role in preventing fire and minimizing the effect their effect. Abnormal

Equipment Arrangement. The equipment should set up on the platform
to provide maximum separation of fuel sources and ignition. Guideline for
organizing equipment can be obtained from BSC. Certain attention must be
applied to the positioning of fire vessels and situation of temporary equipment
during operation, completion, construction tasks.

Prevention of ignition Devices. The equipment must be equipped with spark
and flame arrestors to avoid sparks from discharging. Recommended guidance is
present in (BSC)

Hot surface protection. “According to BSC the temperature in excess
of 400f (204 C) must be safeguarded from mist and hydrocarbon liquid, and
surfaces in excesss of 900 F (482 C) must be safeguarded from flammable gases
and fumes. This should refer to BSC….

Fire Barriers; constructed with fire resistant properties
are beneficial in special conditions to stop the wide spreading of forces and
provide a head shield. Fire barriers must be carefully located to avoid the
possibility obstructing of natural ventilation to stop the accumulation of
hydrocarbon fume and gases. Additional information regarding fire barriers can
be obtained from BSC.

Electrical Protection; protection for electrical sources necessary
provided by the designing and installation of equipment in accordance with (BSC).
Combustible gas can be determined by gas dictation unit with alarm activation
or system shutdown. The gas dictation system alarms certain parameter set by
personal, the best will be to set alarm activate the baser on lower or higher
gas

Bulk storage; The records of flammable fluids must be
carried out regular with operation

 

Fire
Detection and Alarms

 

General

The fire detection and alarms system should be designed to energize at
earliest stages of fire to prevent the widespread fire.

Fire
Detection

Premature detection of fires is essential to reduce damage. Fire
detection can be carried out by automatic devices or by personnel observation.

Personnel Observation; personnel may notice
fire and activate the alarms before automatic detection.

Automatic Fire Detection
System; The main function of automatic fire detection system is to alarm and
alert personals of the fire hazard and identification of the location of the
fire. The automatic fire detection may also be used to eliminate the fire
hazard by the means of activation of emergency stops, isolating machinery,
isolating fuel sources, starting fire pumps and trigger fire extinguishing
system with agents like, water, form and dry chemical.

Fusible Loop System; Fusible Loop System containing
a pressure pneumatic lines which are well positioned near fusible elements are
mainly used as automatic fire detection system. If the design of the system is
systematically allied using the best practices and industrial guidelines can be
very reliable. However, filer to execute this system can lead to undictated
fires at premature stages.  Specific
caution must be taken into account during selection of temperature rating for
fusible elements.

Electrical Systems; electrical fire
dictation system consist of central fire monitoring system located at the
control panel. The application of fire alarms must be properly installed
practicing specific guideline to ensure that the system is effective in the
event of accidental fire. The electrical fire system has calibration options
and automatic testing features. 

The factors required to select the type of detector are; classification,
type of combustible material sensor speed of response, and electrical area of
classification. Additional factors should be considered like spurious alarms
caused by lightning strikes and environmental disaster. The system has to
installed in accordance with

Flame detectors; flame detectors deliver
high speed response in the event of an accidental fire. The flame detectors
must not be vulnerable to false alarms due to environmental factors; therefore,
it might desirable to pair the devices using appropriate voting system e.g.
(UV/IR) to lower false alarms.

 

Alarms
Systems, must be installed on manned according to (BS)
regulation.

General Alarms, Manned platforms should have manual
activation points throughout entire structure and visual alarm must be
installed in high noise areas. The manual alarm must be positioned near
evacuation routes and special attention must be given to delivering means to
initiate alarms at ESD locations. 

 

Fire Water Systems

Fire water systems are generally installed on offshore platforms provide
exposure to safety, for control of burning. The designing principles must be
strategically applied and may involve coverage of platforms equipment like
glycol regenerators, storage, compressors, shipping and processing pumps. The
fire water system must able to deliver the required function designed to
perform. The system should able to provide personnel with means of preventing
fire quickly and effectively before major damages occur.