Individual essay Candidate name: Haggai Torres Robles Centre name: The Westminster school (Dubai) Medical ethics      Key question: To what extent should it be the government’s responsibility to take care of its citizen’s medical care?  The health of people is becoming a significant problem in the world, many people can’t afford medical expenses and don’t have access on medical care especially the under developed countries. For example, in some parts of Africa, children are suffering from infectious disease because of the lack of medical assistance and proper sanitation (Humanium). The medical needs that they have achieved over the past years is still not enough. People are free to look after their health, but some people are likely to disagree with this statement because others don’t have enough money to pay for their own medical needs, the government should provide medical assistance to every citizen. Bringing us to the question, to what extent should it be the government’s responsibility to take care of its citizen’s medical care?  A country’s medical care can greatly affect its economy. In a positive or negative way depending on how consistent and well equipped a government is. A government that provides health care for its citizens l greatly increase the impact in the future. deducting medical costs and free medical care would be very helpful for people that have disabilities and low incomes, children, pregnant women, senior citizens and people that have severe sickness. This can have a great effect in the society. This can encourage other regions or areas of the country to have free or low-cost medical care. Promoting this can help every individual in managing their health this can eventually encourage every citizen especially those people who live in urban areas because of the processed foods that they consume daily and the environment that they live in. If medical care stayed consistent in a country the economy can be gradually affected positively. Providing a health care to a small community will help in the process of developing the country, people should manage health to help them in their daily work or prevent them from contagious diseases. The embassy of United Arab Emirates stated that, the UAE has a government-funded service in health care and swiftly growing health sector that is private which provides a high standard of health care to the society and also public health care service are managed by various officials in United Arab Emirates. contagious diseases like poliomyelitis, malaria and measles were once frequent in UAE but now it has been suppressed. There are also new vaccination organizations that are taking place to protect against contagious diseases. Pre and post-natal care is on par with the world’s most advanced countries: the neonate death rate has been minimized to 5.54 per 1000 and infant death rate to 7 per 1000. Maternal death rates decreased to 0.01 for every 100,000. Due to the favorable outcome of this standard of care throughout the levels of system in health care, the life expectancy in UAE is 76.8, attaining levels close to North America and Europe (Embassy of the United Arab Emirates, 2017 ). In UAE the health care is mostly provided by the government. This shows that the government should be obliged to take care of the citizens.  The health care system in the United States is special among sophisticated developed countries. The health care in United states can be outlined as a hybrid system. In 2014, there were 48 percent came from private funds in United states health care, from households 28 percent and from private companies 20 percent. The federal government gave 28 percent of expenditures while the local and state gave 17 percent (National Health Expenditures, 2014). In 2014, 89.6 percent, that is 283.2 million people in USA. Its population had some sort of health insurance, with 66 percent assured laborers through a health insurance plan which is private. Among the covered, 36.5 percent of the populous, 115.4 million people, got coverage from the United States government in 2014 by Medicare having 50.5 million people, Medicaid having 61.65 million people and Veterans Administration 14.14 million people (Smith & Medalia, 2015). This shows the impact and effectiveness of health care in a country. The effect of health care reform can be very remarkable. According to Dave Johnson vice president for the employee benefits division of the Leavitt Group’s Las Vegas office 2014, it is absolutely beneficial for individuals. People who were not able to get health insurance before can now have a coverage. There are no barring for pre-existing medical condition. Insurance plan now include coverage for preventive services at no cost to individuals, people will be able to benefit from early diagnosis of those who have severe medical conditions. Furthermore, parents are able to keep their children on their health plan until the child reaches 26 years old. This proves the positive effect of health care reform to people and the society.  One of the issues in the health care system is people’s admission to medical care, a better health care admittance is a salient goal of every government all over the world. For example, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) in the United states roughly calculated that, by 2020, 24 million people will acquire coverage via the new state and federal health insurance exchange (Congressional Budget Office, 2013). Many countries in the globe are experiencing an issue to meet the needed number of laborers in the field of health care, that immediately affects the quality of care. The amount of doctors per 1000 population is presumed to stay the same between 2012 and 2015 (Economic Intelligence Unit Database, 2012). More than a billion people globally need access to a health care system both for facilities and caregivers (Shah, 2014). For example, the United Kingdom had a scarcity of approximately 40,000 nurses in 2012, and a dearth of other health care professionals. As stated by a European commission there will be an insufficiency of 230,000 physicians covering the whole continent in the upcoming years (Han, 2012). However, there is a solution for this issue, in Australia, the government has started the Australian General Practice teaching program to expand the number of rookie general practitioners. In 2011 the country’s ministry of health has stated that the organization was midway to reaching its goal of getting another 600 to the program by 2014 (Australia Healthcare report, 2013). The head of Civil Affairs in China has set an aspiring objective to train 6 million caregivers by 2020. Other plans used by different countries’ health systems include employing quality nurses from middle and low income countries. Without health care reform many issues in the economy will rise in a country, thus the country will not develop. Implementing health care can benefit many people that can have a positive effect in the economy. In Russia, for example. None of the 1991-1993 worked out as decided and the changes had in many respects which made the  health system worse (Tompson, 2006). Since the downfall of Soviet Union the health of the society of Russia has decreased greatly resulting in lifestyle, social and economic changes. However, after Vladimir Putin became president in the year 2000 there was a remarkable extension in spending for public health care (Marquez, 2008). Also, life expectancy increased from 1991-1993 levels and infant death rate dropped in 1995 from 18.1 and in 2008 to 8.4 (Russian State Institute of Demography). Vladimir Putin stated a wide-reaching reform in health care in 2011 and promised to distribute more than 10 billion dollars in the upcoming years to develop the country. This shows that health care act can help an economy even in crisis.  However, some people believe and evidence that suggests health care shouldn’t be free because it can be ineffective due to its inconsistency. Some people’s opinions are valid which can be debatable, for example taxes will rise, some people believe in universal health care and a single payer system. In this system it is not free because it is paid by tax dollars that everyone in the workforce would contribute only some people will find it really beneficial, those people who are unemployed and less fortunate. Also, if medical care is free many people will have access to hospitals, but disease can easily spread in the place that other patients or visitors can get. Although these statements can be valid, but it needs evidence to show pertinence. Government who arranges health care for people can trusted, because of corruption many people who work in the government can be easily consumed by greed therefore showing inconsistency to the economy. As stated by the Center for American Progress in 2009 they roughly computed that the absence of health insurance in the U.S. cost the population in between 124 billion to 248 billion dollars every year. Health insurance coverage is unequal and sometimes the less fortunate people and minors are underprivileged (National Partnership for Women and Families, 2011). For example, there were Americans who are uninsured reaching up to 32 million in 2014, 9 million smaller than the year prior. In 2014 professionals attribute this sudden reduction in the uninsured to the full execution of ACA (Majerol, Kewkirk, & Rachel, 2015). Children and minors are disproportionately not covered by insurance. In 2014, 19.9 percent of Hispanic origin, 11.8 percent of black people, 9.3 percent of Asian people and 7.6 percent of non-Hispanic Whites were uninsured (Smith & Medalia, 2015). If this issue still remains people will not find any fairness in health care, only complaints towards the government. When I was doing my research I personally believe that everyone should have free medical care or at least health insurance. Throughout my essay I learned that health care can be effective or ineffective to people and the economy. After my essay was done I have educated myself in this research that I did, based on the combination of my research that I found through reconstructing, deconstructing and researching on different reliable websites or sources, although I’m completely aware that my essay may have flaws, but throughout my research I have learned so many things in the field of medical care both economics and politics. Health care is indeed one of the most important things in people’s lives, it helps the country’s economy and keeps track of people’s health. My perspective in terms of health care completely changed after doing my research, I didn’t know health care can have a huge impact on a country and I thought health care can be achieved easily, access to health care will always be difficult. Despite all the research I did I know there are more evidences that are not shown that can settle this research.   Works cited: http://dpeaflcio.org/programs-publications/issue-fact-sheets/the-u-s-health-care-system-an-international-perspective/#_edn22 https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/global/Documents/Life-Sciences-Health-Care/dttl-lshc-2014-global-health-care-sector-report.pdf https://news.leavitt.com/benefits/positives-health-care-reform/ https://www.uae-embassy.org/about-uae/health-care https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Health_care_reform#cite_note-31 http://www.debate.org/opinions/should-health-care-be-free https://www.humanium.org/en/right-to-health/