In this section, the most
engaging mechanics are discussed, resulting from the aforementioned literature
review. The practical
implication for both instructor and MOOC website designer is also discussed. More specifically, in 52-53,
an analytic hierarchy process has been followed, in which it was identified
that the top six gamification mechanics that can ensure learning engagement,
are team leader boards, redeemable points, check points, rewards,
trophies–badges and memory games. Especially in 53,
the best gamification mechanics for TVET (Technical and Vocational Education
and Training) learning were highlighted which are Peer Grading, Skills Points,
Wally Games, Virtual Goods, Rewards, Trophies and Badges.


More analytically, as already mentioned, virtual
goods are one of the most engaging gamification mechanics. Leaner’s achievement
motivations can be linked to such virtual gifts. The result means that learners’
engagement with the MOOC is higher in order to earn greater achievement. In 62, a large-scale experiment is reported,
measuring the impact of virtual achievement in e-learning applications and the
virtual achievement found to have a positive motivational effect on learner’s
engagement. This result also showed learners prefer earning and owing
virtual goods. The practical implication for instructor is the quantification of
learner’s contribution and provision to learners with virtual goods if a
certain level is achieved by them. Special challenges in order to earn special
virtual goods, can also be provided by instructors to learners. Virtual goods consist
a positive reinforcement for learner’s good performance or regular
participation. The practical implication for MOOC website designer is to
provide a virtual goods exchange interface and display the earned virtual goods
in the learner’s personal page.

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Redeemable points in their turn, engage learners by
supporting their personal achievement motivation 9.
In 9,
2726 active MOOC participants’ data were collected to investigate multiple
learning styles and redeemable points were found able to engage learners by
strengthening the social incentives. From instructor’s perspective, the
implication is to integrate the redeemable points into the course content.
Instructors can allow learners use the points accumulated from MOOCs to redeem
real world’ rewards e.g., course material, items, toys, and game software to
enhance the course participation. From MOOC website designer perspective, they
should design simple and clear redeem user interface to assist learners redeem
gifts. Dialogues should not contain information that is irrelevant or
unnecessary. Every extra unit of information in a dialogue competes with the
relevant units of information and diminishes their relative visibility. The
redeem interface also have to display the redeemable points status and reminder
learners how far they can proceed to next level of rewards.

Leader boards highlight the learner-learner interaction
such as the comparison and competition of teams receives more attention for
MOOC learners compared with individual Leader boards. The visible competition
among teams encourages team members’ highly engagement 49.
In 49,
knowledge sharing in a virtual learning community was examined and observed
that visible competition among teams substantially increase learners’ reliance
on team effort rather than on their own effort, and thus engage learners to
cooperate with team members. From instructor’s perspective, the implication is
the instructor should quantify learner’s team participation and then encourage
simple and visible comparisons between learner’s teams. The practical
implication for MOOC website designer should provide two types of team Leader
boards: local and global view. A local view allow learners immediately see how
they rank among their friends and classmates. A global view allows the learners
to see how they rank among all learners within the system as a whole, it will
assist learners to check the actual learning performance and establish their
learning goals.

The Where’s Wally game found to be quite engaging
gamification mechanic, especially as far as TVET learning is concerned. This result,
means learners seek to understand the world around them, and attempt to
discover the hidden meaning or complex items interact in MOOCs. The
problem-solving process of the Where’s Wally game also provides strong
motivation for learner engagement, a finding that has not been revealed in the
gamification study. In previous learning studies, Where’s Wally is considered
as a type of wordless figure and which is highly correlated to visual literacy
for learners 48, 50.
The wordless picture is considered as an effective learning tool which
encourages readers learning behavior including sense-making, problem solving, and
critical thinking…etc. Therefore, Where’s Wally game is considered to engage
learners by connecting learner’s visual literacy, which contains critical
thinking, learning, construct meaning, creative expression, and aesthetic
enjoyment. From instructor’s perspective, the implication is linking the
problem solving process with Where’s Wally and developing learner’s visual
literacy. Instructors can utilize this visually engaging mechanics to engage
learners in the course. The practical implication for MOOC website designer is
to design various faintly discernible cues (e.g., the sparkling star or
exclamation mark) and display different cues according to learner’s skill
level. System can also give obvious cues as learners are stuck.

Finally, trophies and badges, point out that
learners are engaged by collecting the trophies and badges provided by MOOCs.
Most learners prefer to collect as more types of trophies and badges as
possible 51.
The relationship between gamification and the sustainability of mobile learning
applications was examined, and a badge collection was proposed as a crucial enhancer
of users’ engagement. Learners who enjoy collecting various types of badges are
likely to engage in using mobile applications. From instructor’s perspective,
the implication is immediately reward learner’s achievement using trophies and
badges and develop milestone badges to enhance learner’s motivation by
collecting the badges. The practical implication for MOOC website designer is
to design trophies and badge ladder and describe the particularity of them.
Moreover, the designer should display the trophies and badges information
inside the learner’s personal page and information portion of the comment page.

other game mechanics also have an effect on the learning process. Educators
should know how to use the appropriate game mechanic in teaching and learning.