Healthy Male (Sample 1)- 48 hematocritHealthy Female (Sample 2)- 44 hematocrit These results show that their samples are normal coinciding with where they live in Boston at sea level.  The male in this instance has a higher hematocrit than the female. This difference is due to males having higher levels of the hormone testosterone, which is known to elevate hematocrit by stimulating the release of EPO by the kidneys, which synthesizes RBCs, which would in turn elevate your hematocrit. Healthy Male (Sample 3)- 55 hematocrit Healthy Female (Sample 4)- 53 hematocrit These results indicate that both individuals are suffering from polycythemia, which means they have elevated RBCs, resulting in higher hematocrit levels. Their hematocrit levels were higher than the levels of the Boston residents.  The Denver resident’s hematocrit levels differed from those of the Boston residents because of the higher altitude they live in by living in Denver as opposed to Boston. I predicted than at the higher altitude the Denver residents would have higher hematocrit levels, and thus higher oxygen levels in their blood than the Boston residents.  The results matched up with my prediction in that the Denver residents had hematocrit levels of 55 and 53 compared to the 48 and 44 hematocrit levels of the Boston residents. The kidneys respond to a chronic decrease in oxygen by releasing excess EOP with synthesizes RBCs, which are oxygen-carrying red blood cells, which is meant to compensate for the decrease in oxygen. RBCs determine hematocrit levels, so increasing production of them will hopefully in turn raise hematocrit levels. Sample 5- 19 hematocritThis sample is abnormal with a very low hematocrit level.  This individual has anemia because their hematocrit levels are way below the normal hematocrit range for males is between 42% and 52%. Sample 6- 32 hematocrit This sample is abnormal with a very low hematocrit level. This individual has anemia because their hematocrit level is way below normal for females with ranges between 37% and 47%.  The sedimentation rate for sample 2 was higher than the sedimentation rate in sample 1, the rates were 15 and 5 respectively.  I think this occured because in sample 2 the female is menstruating, which means she is producing more hormones than the healthy individual in sample 1, these hormones she is producing are elevating her sedimentation rate in her blood cells.  Sample 3’s sedimentation rate is 0, so sickle cell anemia will drastically decrease the sedimentation rate of blood cells.  I think sickle cell anemia has this effect because with the disease the blood cells are so misshapen and change shape that are unable to clump together and settle resulting in no ESR.The rate of sample 4 is double that of sample 2 with a rate of 15.  The sedimentation rate of sample 6 is 5mm and the sedimentation rate of sample 1 is 5 mm. So sample 1’s rate is the same as sample 6.  The cause of this is because the individual may be diagnosed with angina pectoris this diagnoses does not have an effect on the sedimentation rate until the individual has a myocardial infarction. So the individual might be suffering from angina pectoris but this disorder is not shown by their sedimentation rate, so their rate would look the same as healthy individuals.  My prediction was that the sample from the individual that is diagnosed with angina pectoris would have a higher sedimentation rate than a healthy individual  My prediction was incorrect. I did not factor in that although angina pectoris is a disorder it does not show up in an individuals sedimentation rate until they have a myocardial infarction. Sample 5’s sedimentation rate is 40mm, and sample 6’s sedimentation rate is 5mm. Sample 5’s rate is much higher than sample 6’s.  This data could be used to monitor heart conditions by being able to tell the progression of heart conditions. With disorders such as angina pectoris there will be no elevation in sedimentation rate, and the elevation will only occur when there is established tissue necrosis. So, the levels in different individuals can be used to gage the progression of diseases and disorders. The male in sample 4 is not deficient in hemoglobin he has excess hemoglobin present in his blood. Normal ranges for males is 13.5-18 g/ 100mL and his sample contained 20g/ 100mL.   The disorder polycythemia is known to increase hemoglobin in blood, not decrease it.  The Olympic athlete hemoglobin levels were 20g/100mL, and the healthy female in sample 2 had 14g/100mL. Neither individual is deficient in hemoglobin. Normal range for females is 12-16g/100mL. The Olympic athlete had excess hemoglobin, and the healthy individual had 14, which is right in the middle of the normal range.  I predicted that the two individuals levels of hemoglobin would be similar if not the same, in between the normal range for females.  The results did not compare well with my prediction. I did not predict that the Olympic athlete would have such high levels of hemoglobin in her blood.  Known conditions that increase hemoglobin levels include polycythemia, congestive heart failure, COPD, and also high altitudes will increase levels as well.Known conditions that are expected to decrease hemoglobin levels include, anemia, hyperthyroidism, cirrhosis of the liver, renal disease, and hemorrhages.  The ratio of hematocrit to hemoglobin in sample 1 was 3:1, which is the normal ratio for a healthy individual. The ratio of hematocrit to hemoglobin in sample 2 was 3.14:1, which is a little above the normal ratio, which means that the hematocrit is a little higher in females. These ratio comparisons show that females may have higher levels of hematocrit.   The ratio of hematocrit to hemoglobin in sample 3 is 5:1, which means that with this individual there is a higher value of hematocrit. The ratio of hematocrit to hemoglobin in sample 5 is 2.73:1, which means that this individual there is a lower value of hematocrit than normal ratios. These ratios show us that individuals with anemia have increased hematocrit.  I predicted that the patient with AB- blood type would have clumped appearances for A and B, but not clumped for Rh, because this blood type contains antigens for A and B. My prediction was correct. The sample showed clumping for A and B but un-clumped for Rh, which is what I predicted since no Rh antigens were present. Sample 5 contained the universal recipient with a blood type of AB+.  Sample 3 contained the rarest blood type of AB-.  Sample 4 contained the universal donor with the blood type O-.  Sample 4 did not agglutinate with any of the antibodies tested with blood type O-. This blood type did not agglutinate with any of the antibodies because it doesn’t have A, B, or Rh antigens, so the antibodies we administered have nothing to bind and coagulate with. Sample 1 would have anti-B antibody. Because there was no B antigens in that sample. When transfusing an individual with blood that is compatible but not the same type, it is important to separate packed cells from the plasma and administer only the packed cells. The reason why packed cells must be separated from plasma is because plasma contains antibodies that could potentially bind with antigens in your blood, causing your red blood cells to lyse and then other potential life threatening and harmful things can occur, so separating the plasma and packed cells is crucial when transfusing blood. Sample 4 (blood type O-), sample 2 (blood type B+), and sample 6 (blood type B-) are the only ones who can donate blood to a person with blood type B+. 1 Patient’s 1 and 3.  The most obvious risks for patients in question 1 are heart problems because their arteries in their heart are getting clogged that is what the cholesterol numbers are showing us. So possible risks include chest pains, heart attack, difficulty breathing, fatigued easily, low energy, easily exerted, etc. High My prediction was that a patient who typically cooked their food in lard and bacon grease would have elevated and unhealthy levels of chlosterol which patient 4 does. Although his or her levels aren’t as elevated as patient’s 2, they are still higher than desired b doctors and healthcare professionals.  My prediction matched the results in this lab perfectly, although I did expect his levels to be higher than 225. Cut out lard and bacon grease and foods high in fat, and turn to healthier alternatives. Eat more fruits and vegetables and don’t eat out as much or get fast food. I would also advise him to exercise regularly starting by taking walks and working up to something that will exert him more like jogging or running or even exercise classes such as yoga or cycling.  These activities are good for his heart which is what is being damaged by his cholesterol levels, so participating in activities like these and eating better will help to reverse some of the damage done to his heart by making poor dietary and exercise decisions. A person might have abnormally low blood cholesterol levels for a number of reasons but the most likely include: hyperthyroidism, adrenal insufficiencies, liver disease, malabsorption in your intestines, and malnutrition. All of these things can result in hypercholesterolemia.