Educational stakeholders and their
The education in Pakistan is carried
under the both provisional and federal sector. However Ministry of education in
Islamabad developed the educational policies and other regulatory framework.
All the provisional stakeholders are involved in policies formulation process.
All the provinces develop their own plan and perform it according to the
available resources and situations in the light of educational policy 2002. The
role of the Executive District Officer is to deal the educational affairs (Kazmi,
S. W., 2005).
other responsibility of the provisional government in the educational sector is
the teacher training, allocation of a budget to district government and
formulation of policies. There are two secretaries or heads, a special
secretary for Higher education that is the head of education department at the
provisional level, and a special secretary for school. These secretaries are
supported by many additional deputy secretaries and the other staff.
On the other hand in UK, the responsibility of the
education is in the hand of each country rather than its provinces or districts
(Heyneman, S. P., 1995). There is a separate institution in each country of
UK which deals with the all educational affairs.
These Institutions are:
for Education and Skill (DfES) in England
of Education in Northern Ireland
Office in Wales
Ø Scottish Executive Education Department (SEED) in
institutions have its own subclass of Institutions for particular role such as
administration, development, training and policy management (Blanden,
J., & Machin, S., 2004). Training and
development Agency (TDA) in England, and General Teaching Council (GTC) are the
example of subclass institutions in these countries.
Ministry of Education (Islamabad) is the responsible of Curriculum formulation
for grade 1-12 in Pakistan. There is a Curriculum department or research and
developments centers in each province, which give academic support to Ministry
of education. The Curriculum developing process for the institutions is very
complex and lengthy because the Ministry of Education required all the inputs
and expert opinion from all the part of the country. The curriculum outline is
finalized by National curriculum reviewed committee in Islamabad.
Formulation of Curriculum in Higher
education and institutions is the responsibilities of each institution. The
course outline and teaching structure are normally discussed in faculty and
then every teacher plan in his/her own method to educate instructions in the
Curriculum formulation process varies across the four countries of the UK. For
example in Wales, Northern Ireland and England the National Curriculum is
statutory and based on the subject. In Scotland, the curriculum is based on the
five main areas of curriculum for 5-14 age group students, while for 14-16 year
age group the curriculum is based on “eight modes” of study (Croxford, 1999),
or as stated by Raffe and McPherson (1988). The given curriculum is just the
guideline for the purpose of education not the prescriptions. There is a
prominent difference in the primary and secondary institutions.
The major difference between the
curriculum of Scotland and rest of the countries of the UK is that Scotland
consists of vocational elements and academic courses that are smaller, while
the curricula of the other countries of UK consist of longer academic courses.
The one similarity between the all four countries is that they all have
vocational courses in their courses.
Curricula of school in Pakistan is centralized just like the most countries (Northern
Ireland, England and Wales) of the UK; whereas in Scotland the curricula are
more flexible. It is School centered and teacher centered.
In the Higher Education, the
universities are completely autonomous and develop their own curricula for the students
in UK, but in Pakistan to some extent as HEC settle the minimum standards for a
specific program based on the approach of nature, assessment, weight age,
required credit hours and the core courses of the program.
examination and the assessment of the students of grand 1 to 12 are the
responsibility of provisional and district government in Pakistan. There is no
national test in all the three provinces of Pakistan for the students of
primary and lower secondary level. The district and provisional government of
Punjab recently introduced the tests for students of grade 5 of primary schools
and grade 8th of elementary schools. A Punjab province uses
continuous assessment tests for the development of students from one elementary
level to another level.
In Punjab province, this system was
introduced under the Examination reforms (2002), which were based on the
assessment of six papers in every academic year (Memon, G. R., 2007).
This system was revised later, now it is
based on four assessments papers where three assessment test done during the
year and one at the end of the academic year. In the whole country of Pakistan,
there are compulsory papers for grade 10, 11, and 12 that were conducted by
Board of Intermediated and Secondary Education (BISE). Board of Intermediated
and Secondary Education is very autonomous body and it ensures the examinations
of these grades in the whole country in a required manner. After the success of
these exams Secondary School certificates (SSC) are awarded to particular
students under the BISE certification awards (Nelson, M. J., 2006).
BISE followed the grading system like A+ for extraordinary students and F to
fail the students.
The National Assessment system is
quite different in UK as compared to the Pakistan assessment system. England
has a statutory national curriculum assessment. The Scotland has not such a
statutory assessment test. The National Curriculum test is carry out under the
special age group to which it administers the statutory test, that are
is conducted at the age of 7
KS2 test, which
is conducted at the age of 11
KS3 test, which
is conducted at the age of 14
The term-wise assessment is carried in
both England and Wales’s country, while the other country does not have any
structured term-wise assessments.
is a major difference in Pakistan and UK evaluation system in regard of
certifications is done. In England, Northern Ireland and Wales after passing
the examinations of 16 years schooling, students are awarded GCSE certificate (Black, P., & Wiliam, D., 2006).
However in Scotland this certificate is awarded after the schooling of 17 or 18
grading systems are also varying in different countries. For example in England
the highest grade is A* and the lower grade is E, and in Wales the highest
grade is A* and the lower is G. However Scotland does not have a GCSE
examinations and certification but they have a standardized grading that is
administered by single examination board called Scottish Qualification Authority
(SQA). This organization has a grading system in which the highest grade is 1
and the lowest grade is 7.
Training and Education for Teachers:
There are two types of teacher
education in Pakistan:
ü Pre-service or Initial teacher
ü In-service teacher training
The whole Pakistan lacks induction.
However some good school system takes the initiative and makes some arrangement
for the training of teachers at the initial level, but it is also not on a
regular basis. Pre-service teacher training is the responsibility of the
institutions like universities, colleges and teacher training centers. They
have to provide necessary skill to students for the career. Teachers are also
trained according to the level they are specialist in. For example the
Government prepared the primary and elementary level teachers under the
Government Colleges for Elementary teachers (GCET) (Kazmi, S. W. (2007).
Government Colleges of Education (GCE)
prepared the secondary level teachers. Research shows that in Pakistan there
are total 125 Teacher Educations Centers in which 9 are the University
institutes or departments, 16 are GCE and 90 are GCETs.
The Master, M.phil and PhD program
of Education is mostly offered by universities of Pakistan. While few
universities introduced four year program such as Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor
of Science. Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan are the only three provinces
that have Bachelor of Education for only GCEs.
Punjab on the other hand provides
the same courses in UCEs and GCETs since 2002 when the Education University was
first established in the country.
The teacher education in UK is
different as compared to the Pakistan. In UK, the traditional Post Graduate
Certificate in Education takes one year for the primary and secondary level.
Apart this there is also a four years BA and B.Ed education with QTS (Abbott, A., 2014).
The Universities of Wales have
introduced more flexible and objective program for teacher education. These
programs are PGCE and ITT under the title of SCITT through the HE-School
partnership. The Objectives of these programs is to help those who want to join
a teacher education but due to various reasons they cannot join the regular
A role of the EECs and DSDs under
the regional education in Pakistan runs the administrative control. This
function, called INSET is a supplementary and intended body to provide teacher
training in Pakistan. INSET is also a job of GCETs and is not one of the necessary
components in the provision of teacher training (Nawaz, A., & Kundi, G. M., 2010).
The comparison of the Pakistan and
UK Education system tells that there are more similarities than differences
between the provinces of Pakistan, while there are more differences than
similarities between the UK and Pakistan Education system.
are many similarities and differences between the two countries in the
perspective of educational structure, system and educational administrations.
There are many similarities between the provinces of Pakistan in terms to the
educational structure, curricula and training, since the policy plan and
development is under the federal Government (Aslam, M., & Kingdon, G. G., 2008). While the difference is prominent in the UK countries
plan and policies development is done at the National government level for each
conclusion, all the discussion provides a clear difference between the
education systems of UK and Pakistan. It is concluded that there are many
significant inter-countries differences in UK that there are in the
inter-provincial comparison in Pakistan. There are also many differences
between Pakistan and the UK in regard to educational structure, educational authority,
assessment and examinations, curriculum formulation processes, teacher training
and education and the supervision is concerned. Since the district governments
devolved in 2001, Pakistan has decentralized its administrative control over
schools to the provincial and district governments. This decentralization can
be equated to the decentralization to the country or national governments for
individual countries in UK. A summative
and formative type of assessment is implemented in both Pakistan and UK.
Generally, the education systems and strategies in UK are more structured than
those in Pakistan (Bond,
has therefore had changes in the education sector to reform the activities and
education systems so as to match the international standards. UK has also
implemented several changes over the last few years and more specifically, it
has changed the first degree duration (Coleman, J., 1968). Therefore, with
these changes in each country, the differences between the education systems of
UK and Pakistan are expected to be very little.