Colon cancer is the third leading causes of cancer deaths
in the United States. Colon cancer is on rise in developing countries and is
gaining importance. Although mortality and morbidity rates of colon cancer
decreased in US over the past decade due to improved awareness and screening, there will be an estimated 93,090 new cases of colon cancer
in year 2015 and 5% of Americans would be diagnosed with colon cancer in
life time. Genetics are main cause for colon cancer incidence. But,
environmental factors and diet have an important effect on the colon cancer
incidence and development (Sunkara et al.,
2015). In addition, Carcinogenesis is a
multistage multistep process. Animal models that mimic human carcinogenesis are
important to determine dose and to test the efficacy, safety of chemopreventive
agents. Chemical induction of colon cancer in rodents by azoxymethane was a
widely studied model for testing efficacy of dietary chemopreventive agents (Reddy,
2004). Nanoparticles are of great interest
due to their novel physicochemical, magnetic, and optoelectronic properties
that are governed by their size, shape, and size distribution. It is permanently
the nanoparticles’ extremely small size and large surface area to volume ratio
that leads to the significant differences in properties not seen in the same
material at larger scales in their bulk form (Perez et al., 2005). Moreover, biological synthesis has
emerged as an alternative to traditional synthesis methods for producing
nanoparticles. Biosynthesis involves using an green chemistry based approach
that employs unicellular and multicellular biological entities such as actinomycetes,
bacteria , fungus, plants, viruses, and yeast and synthesizing nanoparticles via
biological entities acting as biological factories offers a clean, nontoxic and
environment-friendly method of synthesizing nanoparticles with a wide range of
sizes, shapes, compositions, and physicochemical properties (Mohanpuria et al., 2008 ). In this
study we will show these new dimensions of this field by
studying and characterization the synthesis and effects of biologically
synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TDNPs) in combination with other promising
drugs for the treatment of cancers especially colon cancer. Our results will
provide an experimental basis for production of titanium dioxide nanoparticles
biologically, understanding and evaluation its anticancer activity either alone
or in combination with other new drugs.