Clearly there are many
possibilities for the use of ICTs/music technology in the world of music
education. From streaming audio/video to the more traditional CDs and DVDs;
from online research to software programs that deliver immediate feedback on
aural skills training; from the use of notational software like Finale or Sibelius
to the use of GarageBand or Dance eJay, there are many possibilities to
integrate ICT into the music classroom – whether that classroom is face to face
or online. However, there is a gaping hole in the body of research that needs
to be addressed. A new paradigm needs to be created, whereupon the extensive
audio and video records are shared via the internet – perhaps YouTube or set up
on special website with private sharing sights (with parental and student
consent). In cases where actual sheet music has been created, that needs to be
shared as well. Music is aural by nature, and until there is a way to share the
aural results – until these changes are made, we cannot have a full sharing of
ideas. Perhaps the community of practice via social media will be the best way
to informally share the results of these different experiments, with teachers
enthusiastically showing off the work of their students and convincing other
teachers in the process.

Conclusion

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Hand in hand with the
development of new technologies come new demands on teachers who are required
to develop their knowledge and teaching in order to keep pace with the new
equipment that has been made available.  If
we are able to more fully understand what teachers think about the I&CT
revolution then we will be better equipped to enhance the diffusion of these
new technologies, not only in the music classroom, but also throughout the
education system.

o  
Also, from
this study showed that technology improved concentration on students, maximized
time on-task, developed and enhance cooperative learning, and raised higher level
thinking skills.

o   Music instruction provided through the use of
technology assisted program contributes to a sense of professional development
and personal growth on the part of the music educators.

o   Student attitudes toward classroom music are not
only positively enhanced, but also the level of interests and motivation are
sustained across the academic years.

o   Long and short-term music achievement, is
significantly increased when compared to existing approaches of classroom
music.

o  
Students who
receive hands-on instruction had greater comprehension of musical concepts
compared with students taught with traditional approaches and methods.

Many researches have been made on the
effects of technology on music learning. The Yamaha Corporation conducted a
research related to the use of technology in music education, and several key
findings have emerged from this study. These include:

Technology is a powerful tool that can
support and transform education in many ways, from making it easier for
teachers to create instructional materials to enabling new ways for people to
learn and work together. With the worldwide reach of the Internet and the
ubiquity of smart devices that can connect to it, a new age of anytime anywhere
education is dawning. It will be up to instructional designers and educational
technologies to make the most of the opportunities provided by technology to
change education so that effective and efficient education is available to
everyone everywhere.

 

Technology has also begun to change the
roles of teachers and learners. In the traditional classroom, such as what we
see depicted in de Voltolina’s illustration, the teacher is the primary source
of information, and the learners passively receive it. This model of the
teacher as the “sage on the stage” has been in education for a long time, and
it is still very much in evidence today. However, because of the access to
information and educational opportunity that technology has enabled, in many
classrooms today we see the teacher’s role shifting to the “guide on the side”
as students take more responsibility for their own learning using technology to
gather relevant information. Schools and universities across the country are
beginning to redesign learning spaces to enable this new model of education,
foster more interaction and small group work, and use technology as an enabler.

Opportunities for
communication and collaboration have also been expanded by technology.
Traditionally, classrooms have been relatively isolated, and collaboration has
been limited to other students in the same classroom or building. Today,
technology enables forms of communication and collaboration undreamt of in the
past. Students in a classroom in the rural U.S., for example, can learn about
the Arctic by following the expedition of a team of scientists in the region,
read scientists’ blog posting, view photos, e-mail questions to the scientists,
and even talk live with the scientists via a videoconference. Students can
share what they are learning with students in other classrooms in other states
who are tracking the same expedition. Students can collaborate on group
projects using technology-based tools such as wikis and Google docs. The walls
of the classrooms are no longer a barrier as technology enables new ways of
learning, communicating, and working collaboratively.

However, in many ways,
technology has profoundly changed education. For one, technology has greatly
expanded access to education. In medieval times, books were rare and only an
elite few had access to educational opportunities. Individuals had to travel to
centers of learning to get an education. Today, massive amounts of information
(books, audio, images, videos) are available at one’s fingertips through the
Internet, and opportunities for formal learning are available online worldwide
through the Khan Academy, MOOCs, podcasts, traditional online degree programs,
and more. Access to learning opportunities today is unprecedented in scope thanks
to technology.

Technology has impacted
almost every aspect of life today, and education is no exception. Or is it? In
some ways, education seems much the same as it has been for many years. A 14th
century illustration by Laurentius de Voltolina depicts a university lecture in
medieval Italy. The scene is easily recognizable because of its parallels to
the modern day. The teacher lectures from a podium at the front of the room
while the students sit in rows and listen. Some of the students have books open
in front of them and appear to be following along. A few looks bored. Some are
talking to their neighbors. One appears to be sleeping. Classrooms today do not
look much different, though you might find modern students looking at their
laptops, tablets, or smart phones instead of books (though probably open to
Facebook). A cynic would say that technology has done nothing to change
education.

If music technology is to support teachers in
their developments of pupils’ musical learning, then there must be an
identifiable benefit to specific areas of that learning. Teachers who are
experiences in using technology, describe three areas where they see several
benefits to pupils’ learning: Musical Understanding, Composing and Performing.

Chipman et al. 2008: 211).

“encourage active learning, knowledge
construction, inquiry, and exploration on the part of the student, as opposed
to being exposed to information delivery systems” (Greaesser,

In the last few
years many tools have become available to the music educators that can
significantly enhance student learning. It is important for music educators to
be aware of the full competences of such tools that can help students to better
performance, creativity and understanding music. The word technology applies to
and describes a wide variety of devices and applications in music and music
education. In the past 100 years, technology had a great impact on music
education. In 1983 the Carnegie Foundation published A Nation at Risk. This
publication cited that changes must be made in our approach to education. One
of the suggestions that this foundation offered was to embrace technology. If
we are to make the most of the opportunities that technology affords us, then a
broader view of technology is needed. Such a view would attend not only too well-established
methods, software resources and hardware solutions; but also to new and
developing trends. Digital technologies that can be useful in music education
are systems that:

Discussion

There have been many efforts
to explore the possibilities that music technology offers in education, in
spite of the synchronous nature of music performance (Dammers, 2009). In 2009,
Dammers summed up the conundrum of using Information and Communications
Technology (ICT) in the field of music education, stating that because music
performance is, by its very nature, synchronous, the use of ICT is problematic
at best (Dammers, 2009, p. 22). Before examining how technology is being used
in music education, it is necessary to lay out parameters for the term. Rees
(2001) defined music technology as “the systematic study of tools and
techniques for music production, performance, education, and research” (Rees,
2011, p. 154).

Literature Review

The introduction of new
information and communication technologies (I&CTs), such as the Internet
and multimedia devices has had an enormous impact upon modern culture
(Hargreaves, Miell & MacDonald, 2002). This is particularly apparent within
the music industry. Indeed, modern technological advances mean that now, more
than at any other time, music is pervasive and functions not only as a
pleasurable art form but also increasingly provides a soundtrack to our
professional, social and private lives (Hargreaves & North, 1997, Frith,
2000; MacDonald & Miell, 2000; Sloboda, O’Neill & Ivaldi, 2001).  Moreover, almost every aspect of the music
industry today involves the use of I in some shape or form. For example,
the use of digital recording hardware and computer based recording and
sequencing software occurs extensively in professional, amateur and educational
contexts (Folkestad, 1996).  a technological
revolution has taken place which affects all aspects of music performance and
listening  (Folkestad, 1998). This
enormous change in the way in which we listen to and produce music has
generated a research imperative to understand the impact that these
technological advancements have on all aspects of music making (Byrne &
MacDonald, in press). The impact of new technologies has been particularly
influential within educational environments and, in the music classroom for
example, the range of possible uses of keyboards, computers and recording
technologies are extensive  (Byrne &
MacDonald, in press, Mills & Murray, 2000).

Introduction

The impact of new
technologies within music education has been enormous and there is an urgent
need for research that investigates the far reaching implications of this
technological revolution. If music education is to respond to the opportunities
offered by the digital age, we will need thoughtful and reflective teachers. These
will be teachers who are able to research their own practice, ask questions
about the role of music technologies as part of their own professional
development and in the development of their students. Digital technology is a
powerful agent in moving the minds of teachers and students alike. Today’s
competitive world markets require workers of a knowledge economy to possess ICT
literacy, the “ability to use technology to develop 21st century content
knowledge and skills” (Partnership for 21st century Skills, 2006, p. 11).
Schools are seen to play a critical role in producing a workforce that is
highly educated and skilled to support a country’s economy. This recognition of
education as a key contributor to the economy has led school curricula in many countries
to mandate ICT as a central component, with teachers being increasingly
expected to infuse ICT into the teaching and learning processes. No matter what
else may divide us, most music educators are agreed on one general point. A
central aim of defining how effective music educational practice should happen
in the digital music classroom is an imperative; a view which is emphasized in
policy and widely acknowledged in teacher training. Yet, the critical roles
played by creativity and technology in supporting the promotion of pedagogic change
is less clear.

Abstract