Chapter 11. The definition of the word ethics are the moral rules that define what is inherently right and wrong. They are generally a code to follow in order to execute the right and minimize and/or avoid or resolve the wrong. There is micro ethics, which constitutes the values and morals based on a person’s life experiences. There are macro ethics, which constitute the general consensus or conventional thought of what is right vs. wrong. 2. One should study ethics because it allows an impartial assessment towards any questionable scenario, leading to a fair or “right” outcome. 3. The definition of morality is essentially the code of conduct that dictates an individual’s behavior. The correctness of the morals differs from culture to culture, countries, religion, etc.4. Normative ethics – creates a standard on the basis of an person’s actions and their consequences in deciding what is morally correct and incorrect Consequential and Teleologic ethics – measures the amount of good that a particular action brings in comparison to the evil; the goal is the achieve the greatest good. Situational ethics – measures the outcome of an action which justifies the result given the situation. Utilitarian ethics -measures the overall usefulness of actions. The intention is to do the greatest food for the max. amount of people in regard. Deontologic ethics – includes duty based ethics and believes that doing the right thing may not necessarily lead to good outcomes. Nonconsequential ethics – code of conduct is based on the properties intrinisic to the actions rather than on the consequence.Ethicial relativisim: considers ethics in relation to one’s cultural background; moral decision are based on the different norms by a religion, society, etc. 5. Ethical relativism is a theory which defines that morality is related to the norm of a particular culture or society. The relevance of this concept is applied in healthcare to those practicing certain religions, are a part of a culture/society. Those particular people may need a different assessment based off those details, which will allow the decision to ultimately be as ethical as possible. Chapter 21. Ethicial dilemmas arise when a choice must be made when there are different ways to approach something. Sometimes, the decision maker must weigh in all the variables and maybe break some ethical norms to make the decision that best suits the situation. Also, there can situations where a deicion must be made when it contradicts that person’s code of ethics, and creates a dilemma. 2. The controversey resided in the fact that it was now federally legal for a woman to have an abortion regardless of the state’s abilitiy to rule whether it was legal or not beforehand. This contradicted a lot of states values of pro life vs pro choice. 3. The ethical principles that surround the abortion issue is that aborting the unborn child denies that child a life to live. Religious ethics are also violated because it is taking another’s life. There is another perspective that if the child is born, it is at harm to the mother, so the abortion is justified. 4. I do think that states should be able to impose reasonable restrictions or waiting periods on women seeking abortions. In Colautti v. Franklin, held that the state can make efforts in order to protect a fetus that has the probability to survive outside the womb in case the physian approves that the fetus can survive. I think humanely speaking, allowing the unbirthed child a chance at life is the least the mother should allow (she does not necessarily have to raise it though). 5. Yes, according to the Abortion Control Act, a married woman doesn’t need the husband’s consent. Because the woman is directly affected physiologicially throughout the pregnancy, she maintains the right to soley choose to abort or not regardless of the man’s interest in the unborn child.