Arduino Mega 2560

Arduino mega is a microcontroller. This microcontroller has
54 digital input/output pins, 16 analog inputs, 4 UARTs (i.e hardware serial
ports) and a 16 MHz Crystal oscillator. It also has a USB connection, a Power
jack, an ICSP header and a Reset button. Arduino can be powered by using a USB or
with an external power unit. Arduino automatically selects the power source.
External power for Arduino can come from an AC-to-DC adapter or from a battery.

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Arduino Mega is used to display the text “Enter the saline
drop rate” on an Android phone so that user can enter number of drops per
minute. Arduino also continuously reads the saline rate from the flow sensor.

WiFi (ESP8266)

The WIFI Module (ESP8266) is a self-contained System on Chip
(SOC). It is integrated with Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) protocol stack that can give any microcontroller access to your WiFi
network. The WiFi module (ESP8266) is an extremely cost effective board. It provides
on-board processing and storage capability in order to be integrated with
sensors.

WiFi module is used to provide connectivity across the
globe. It is used to connect the Arduino Mega (2560) to the software
application.

Servo Motor

A servo motor is a linear or rotary actuator. An exact
control of angular or linear position, velocity and acceleration is provided by
servo motor. It comprises of a motor that is coupled to a sensor for position
feedback. It is a self-contained electrical device that rotates parts of a
machine with high efficiency and great precision. The output shaft of this
servo motor can be moved to a particular angle.

The servo motor is used to control the saline flow rate. The
servo motor is able to rotate from 0o to 180o to control
the flow rate. If the saline flow rate is more than that specified in the command
then the servo motor rotates anti-clockwise to reduce the flow rate and if the
actual flow rate is less than that specified in the command then servo motor
rotates clockwise to reduce the gap between the valve and pipe. When actual
flow rate is same as the one specified in the command, then servo motor stops
to keep flow rate same.

Flow Sensor

Flow sensor consists of two metal wires arranged in parallel
very close to each other. Flow sensor is used to detect the saline flow from
the saline bottle. The flow sensor provides a digital pulse each time a certain
amount of saline passes through the pipe. The output can easily be connected to
a microcontroller for monitoring saline flow.

Keypad Matrix

A keypad matrix consists of a set of push buttons or switches
which are arranged in a matrix format of rows and columns. These keypad
matrices are available in different configurations in the market.

We have used a 4×4 matrix configuration. Keypad Matrix is
used to take the user inputs. In case Android phone is discharged or is not working,
then the user can use Keypad Matrix to provide the saline drop rate.

IR Sensor

An Infrared (IR) Sensor is an electronic instrument. It senses
certain characteristics of its surroundings by either emitting or detecting
infrared radiation. Infrared (IR) Sensor senses the saline drops from saline
bottle when it reaches a particular critical level.  After sensing that the saline in the saline
bottle has come to a critical level, it transmits a signal to the sensor
receiver.