ABSTRACT

 The present study
investigates the relationship between Motivation and Job Satisfaction.
Motivation has been treated as a dependent and Job Satisfaction as an
independent variable. The respondents were the employees of one of the public
sector giants of India, BSNL and the data has been colleted from 45 white color
employees (supervisors and above) of BSNL, Saharanpur. Primary data has been
collected by the researcher through two different standard structured
questionnaires based on a five pointer likert scale. The results show a positive
correlation between motivation and job satisfaction i.e., motivation increases
with increase in job satisfaction and vice-versa. The results of the study also
indicate that, motivation remains unaffected of both age as well as the length
of the service of the employees. It may be because of the fact that the factors
responsible for motivation and satisfaction seem to be present in the working
environment of the organization. The paper also finds the relative importance
of different factors that contribute to the satisfaction of employees;
Compensation Package emerged as the most important factor, whereas the Self
Actualization appears to be the least important factor.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

 

 

INTRODUCTION

Work plays a dominant role in our lives. It occupies more of
our time than any other activity. We define ourselves in part by our career or
profession, it is very difficult to enjoy life without doing some productive
work, and any activity which has so much importance must evoke strong positive
or negative reactions from and these reactions tell how satisfied or
dissatisfied one is with his/her work. Job satisfaction is so important in that
its absence often leads to lethargy and reduced organizational commitment
(Levinson, 1997, Moser, 1997). Lack of job satisfaction is a predictor of
quitting a job (Alexander, Lichtenstein and Hellmann, 1997; Jamal, 1997).

One of the most important factors that lead one to their
goals is the drive. This drive is known as motivation. It is a zest and
determination with a kind of excitement that leads one to persevere to reach
greater heights, in no matter what avenue of their life; be it personal or
professional. The drive may come from an internal or external source. The
individual determines this. If managers know what drives the people working for
them, they can tailor job assignments and rewards to what makes these people
ìtick.î Motivation can also be conceived of as whatever it takes to encourage
workers to perform by fulfilling or appealing to their needs. According to
Olajidebe outside the goals of any organization whether public, private, or
nonprofitî. Akintoye (2000) asserts that money remains the most significant
motivational strategy. Though way back Abraham Maslow (1943), gave a model that
shows that factors that motivate an individual keep changing as one climbs the
ladder of age and maturity. And also, achievement of one goal sets the ball rolling
for another one to be achieved. Thus, to be motivated is a constant need. There
are times when one faces a period of de-motivation and everything seems bleak.
It is then that they need to find what would motivate them back into action.
According to Carlyle’s ìGreat Man Theoryî (1888) an organization’s achievements
are its employee’s achievements. This theory shows how important employees are
for an organization and how important it is that they are satisfied, motivated
and hence productive. As it is a well known fact that these two factors i.e.,
Motivation and Job Satisfaction have a great impact on the performance of an
employee as well as the organization thus, the study of relationship between
these two variables unarguably becomes a topic of prime importance and of great
interest for study and further research. Before moving further let us look at
what other prominent and eminent researchers have to say about these two
factors or what they have found earlier in their studies. Review of Literature
Crites (1985) has aptly distinguished between job satisfaction and job
attitudes. He observes, ìIf it is some specific aspect of the job such as
duties and tasks or working conditions, then the concept which is defined would
be job attitudesî. If it is the overall job in which the individual is
presently employed, then the concept would be job satisfaction According to
Keith Davis and John W. Newstrom (2002), Job Satisfaction is a set of favorable
or unfavorable feelings and emotions with which employees view their work. It
is anbe outside the goals of any organization whether public, private, or
nonprofitî. Akintoye (2000) asserts that money remains the most significant
motivational strategy. Though way back Abraham Maslow (1943), gave a model that
shows that factors that motivate an individual keep changing as one climbs the
ladder of age and maturity. And also, achievement of one goal sets the ball
rolling for another one to be achieved. Thus, to be motivated is a constant
need. There are times when one faces a period of de-motivation and everything
seems bleak. It is then that they need to find what would motivate them back
into action. According to Carlyle’s ìGreat Man Theoryî (1888) an organization’s
achievements are its employee’s achievements. This theory shows how important
employees are for an organization and how important it is that they are
satisfied, motivated and hence productive. As it is a well known fact that
these two factors i.e., Motivation and Job Satisfaction have a great impact on
the performance of an employee as well as the organization thus, the study of
relationship between these two variables unarguably becomes a topic of prime
importance and of great interest for study and further research. Before moving
further let us look at what other prominent and eminent researchers have to say
about these two factors or what they have found earlier in their studies.
Review of Literature Crites (1985) has aptly distinguished between job
satisfaction and job attitudes. He observes, ìIf it is some specific aspect of
the job such as duties and tasks or working conditions, then the concept which
is defined would be job attitudesî. If it is the overall job in which the
individual is presently employed, then the concept would be job satisfaction
According to Keith Davis and John W. Newstrom (2002), Job Satisfaction is a set
of favorable or unfavorable feelings and emotions with which employees view
their work. It is anexamine the effect of individual attributes, job
characteristics, and organizational variables on three aspects of work
motivation: job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job involvement.
They find that managers have varying degrees of influence over these different
aspects of work motivation, with greatest influence over job satisfaction and
least influence over job involvement. A number of variables are important for
work motivation, including public service motivation, advancement
opportunities, role clarity; job routine ness, and group culture. Motivation
basically has two dimensions (Anonymous, 2010), one being ìmaking employees
work better, more efficiently and effectivelyî from the point of view of
managers, the other being ìenabling employees to do their jobs in the best way
with enjoyment and desireî from the point of view of employees. Motivation and
Job Satisfaction has been considered to be affected by economic variables and
this fact cannot be denied but are not sufficient enough to have a prolonged
effect. However, it is seen that appeal to the motivating economic tools and
expecting from them more than needed does not seem to result in success very
much. Therefore, in planning rewarding, encouraging economic tools should be
employed in accordance with employees’ needs. In fact, there are ways of
increasing employees’ work motivation and satisfaction other than monetary
tools (Moncrief, 2010). Yasemin Oraman (2011), worked to evaluate the effective
dynamics of work motivation and job satisfaction of textile employees. It
analyzes the effectiveness of psycho-social, economic, organizational and
managerial tools over individuals’ motivation in terms of maintaining the
motivation and job satisfaction of the employees in the business. He came out
with the conclusions that economics tools by employee are positivelyexamine the
effect of individual attributes, job characteristics, and organizational
variables on three aspects of work motivation: job satisfaction, organizational
commitment, and job involvement. They find that managers have varying degrees
of influence over these different aspects of work motivation, with greatest
influence over job satisfaction and least influence over job involvement. A
number of variables are important for work motivation, including public service
motivation, advancement opportunities, role clarity; job routine ness, and
group culture. Motivation basically has two dimensions (Anonymous, 2010), one
being ìmaking employees work better, more efficiently and effectivelyî from the
point of view of managers, the other being ìenabling employees to do their jobs
in the best way with enjoyment and desireî from the point of view of employees.
Motivation and Job Satisfaction has been considered to be affected by economic
variables and this fact cannot be denied but are not sufficient enough to have
a prolonged effect. However, it is seen that appeal to the motivating economic
tools and expecting from them more than needed does not seem to result in
success very much. Therefore, in planning rewarding, encouraging economic tools
should be employed in accordance with employees’ needs. In fact, there are ways
of increasing employees’ work motivation and satisfaction other than monetary
tools (Moncrief, 2010). Yasemin Oraman (2011), worked to evaluate the effective
dynamics of work motivation and job satisfaction of textile employees. It
analyzes the effectiveness of psycho-social, economic, organizational and
managerial tools over individuals’ motivation in terms of maintaining the
motivation and job satisfaction of the employees in the business. He came out with
the conclusions that economics tools by employee are positively1. To find out
the Relationship between Motivation (Y) and Job Satisfaction (X). 2. To explore
the effects of Age and the Experience on the Motivational Level of the
Employees. 3. To find out the relative importance of the various Job Satisfying
factors Hypothesis 1. There is no significant difference between the Mean
Motivation Score of the high and low satisfied employees. 2. Motivation remains
unaffected of the age of the employees. 3. There is no significant relationship
between Motivation and the Length of Service of the employees. Research design
In the present study, Motivation has been treated as a dependent and Job
Satisfaction as an independent variable. Mathematically, relationship between
Motivation and Job Satisfaction is as below: M = f (JS) ‘M’ stands for
Motivation and ‘JS’ stands for Job Satisfaction Then independent variable (Job
Satisfaction) has been split into two groups: – high and low with reference to
the median of the variables scores in question. Above the median score is
representing high Job Satisfaction and below median score is low Job
Satisfaction of the employees. Thereafter, the mean motivational score of the
highly satisfied employees has been compared with the mean motivational score
of the low satisfied employees with a view to explore the impact of
satisfaction on motivation. Data collection As the research is descriptive in
nature the study relies on primary data collected from white collar employees,
working in BSNL, 1. To find out the Relationship between Motivation (Y) and Job
Satisfaction (X). 2. To explore the effects of Age and the Experience on the
Motivational Level of the Employees. 3. To find out the relative importance of
the various Job Satisfying factors Hypothesis 1. There is no significant
difference between the Mean Motivation Score of the high and low satisfied
employees. 2. Motivation remains unaffected of the age of the employees. 3.
There is no significant relationship between Motivation and the Length of
Service of the employees. Research design In the present study, Motivation has
been treated as a dependent and Job Satisfaction as an independent variable.
Mathematically, relationship between Motivation and Job Satisfaction is as below:
M = f (JS) ‘M’ stands for Motivation and ‘JS’ stands for Job Satisfaction Then
independent variable (Job Satisfaction) has been split into two groups: – high
and low with reference to the median of the variables scores in question. Above
the median score is representing high Job Satisfaction and below median score
is low Job Satisfaction of the employees. Thereafter, the mean motivational
score of the highly satisfied employees has been compared with the mean
motivational score of the low satisfied employees with a view to explore the
impact of satisfaction on motivation. Data collection As the research is
descriptive in nature the study relies on primary data collected from white
collar employees, working in BSNL,