cross-sectional study was conducted involving students attending the public
sector medical colleges in Peshawar. A sample of students was randomly selected
and students were presented with an information sheet explaining the purpose
and design of the study as well as their role in the study. Once they gave
verbal consent to participate, they were requested to complete a questionnaire.
All the completed questionnaires were entered into a dataset on a computer
using the SPSS software, and analysis of the data was performed using the SPSS
version 17 for Microsoft Windows. Statistical analysis included descriptive
statistics such as frequencies and percentages or means and standard deviations.
The cross-tabulation, chi-square statistic were used to assess the statistical
significance of difference.


survey included questions regarding demographics, caffeine (consumption,
reasons for use) and stimulants (use, reason for use ). Further, data was
collected by students and their level of stimulants consumption.

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final dataset included 416 students categorized into two groups 1st
– 2nd year and 3rd – final year out of which 92.08% of
surveyed students reported that they drank stimulants containing
beverages. Energy drinks and coffee were found to be the most common sources of
stimulants followed by soft drinks and tea. On comparison it is estimated that
2nd group of students was founded more prevalent than 1st
group of students. The intake of stimulants was found higher on exam days than
normal days. Also, there was higher stimulants intake by smokers than non
smokers. Regarding energy drinks, a greater percentage of males than females
were found to consume energy drinks.


most common self reported reasons for consuming stimulants containing products
were: To improve alertness, To improve concentration, To improve exam, To
improve memory, To relax.

 Assuming that this sample is representative of
the larger student population, it is estimated that the prevalence of
stimulants use for students lies within the range: 92.08% to 96.4% (95%
confidence interval).