A field
experiment was conducted during Kharif season
in 2015 at Crop Research Centre of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of
Agriculture and Technology, Meerut, U.P. (India) to evaluate the Potassium
management for basmati rice (Oryza sativa
L.) in intensive cropping
system of Western Uttar Pradesh. The soil of the
experimental field was well drained, sandy loam in texture, alkaline in
reaction (pH 8.03), low in available nitrogen, medium in available phosphorus
and available potassium with an electrical conductivity 0.29dSm-1. Twelve treatments comprising 100% NP, 100%
NPK, 100% NP + 125% K, 100% NP + 150% K, 125% NPK, 150% NPK, 100% NP + Crop
residue, 100% NP + FYM, 100% NP + SPM, SSNM, SSNM-K and SSNM+K were replicated
thrice in a randomized block design. The experimental results revealed that significant
difference was found in growth and yield attributing traits of rice. Among the
different treatments the highest S, Zn, B and Fe uptake was recorded in SSNM
(Site Specific Nutrient Management) + K (Potassium) treatment. Therefore
application of 150 % RDF (100:60:60 kg NPK) proved to be better for achieving
higher yield and maintaining the good quality of basmati rice. Although the
yield was high in 150% NPK but it did not differ from SSNM. Therefore, the
practice of SSNM is found better for sustainability of crop yield, quality and
soil health.

Key words: Balance doses of nutrients, Basmati
rice (Oryza sativa L.), INM, Intensive cropping system, Potassium
management, Grain quality, SSNM and Grain Yield.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

INTRODUCTION

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) a
member of Poaceae, formerly called Gramineae family and one of the most
important food crops in the world forms the staple diet of 2.7 billion people.
The area, production and productivity of India is 43.42 m ha, 105.24 mt and
24.23 qha-1, respectively. (Anonymous, 2015). Uttar Pradesh
is the 2nd  largest rice
growing state only after West Bengal in the country, in which rice is grown
over an area of 58.6 lakh hectares with the production of 144.1 lakh tonnes and
the productivity is 2460 kg ha-1. Total rice cultivated area in
Meerut is 14514 ha, production 39362 tonnes and productivity 2710 kg ha-1
(Anonymous, 2015). Pusa Basmati-1509 was developed in 2013 and has been
ranked the best among the Basmati varieties. The rice-potato-maize is a
dominant cropping sequence being followed in western Uttar Pradesh. Potassium
is the third essential plant nutrient along with N and P. Its availability to
plants depends upon the concentration of K in soil solution and on exchange
sites. Potassium is essential for enzyme activation, charge balance and osmotic
regulation in plants. It is present in cation form in plant cell to
maintain ionic balance and up to 10% of plant dry matter is made up of K (Marschner,
1995). Its ease of access to plants depends upon its status in soil
solution, exchangeable K and rate of exchange of K from exchangeable form to
soil solution form (Wakeel, 2013). Specific functions that occur in
cytoplasm require small amount of potassium while a major portion (90%) of K is
present in vacuole where it acts as an osmotic contributing to extension growth
of plants (Wakeel, et al., 2010 & 2011). High K contents in
plant tissue increase its resistant to sudden environmental variations like
temperature stress, rain in late season, cold and frost (Cakmak, 2005).
Potassium accumulation in the plant tissue also decreases damage to plant in
response to osmotic stress and physiological burdens (Rajkumara, 2008). Deficiency
system appears on younger leaves and finally plant can die (Tiwari, 2000).
Thus poor nutrient management due to lack of proper and imbalanced use of
chemical fertilizers including micronutrients is one of the factor responsible
for low yields and poor grain quality of basmati rice. Balance site specific nutrient management (SSNM) in combination with
micronutrients will not only break the yield barrier (Kumar, et al., 2015) but also
improved the quality of rice grain such
as crude protein, zinc and iron content in grain. Supply of plant nutrients in
balanced and sufficient quantity is essential to sustain its productivity on long-term
basis. Plants require potassium (K) in large quantity. Decline in crop
productivity due to lack of K supply was reported even in K rich soils (Srinivasarao,
et al. 2011 and Singh and Wanjari, 2012). Therefore, keeping
these facts in mind, the present study was formulated to find out the optimum
dose of potassium fertilizer to obtain maximum growth and yield and best
quality of basmati rice (Oryza sativa L.) in intensive cropping system of Western Uttar Pradesh.

Materials and Methods

            This
research was conducted at Crop Research Centre (CRC) of Sardar Vallabhbhai
Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut (U.P.) during the kharif
season of 2015, which is located at latitude of 290 40? N and
longitude of 770 42? E and at an altitude of 237 meter above mean
sea level (MSL). Meerut lies in the heart of Western Uttar Pradesh and has semi
arid to sub-tropical climate. The experiment was laid in randomized block
design (RBD) with twelve treatments comprising 100% NP, 100% NPK, 100% NP +
125% K, 100% NP + 150% K, 125% NPK, 150% NPK, 100% NP + Crop residue, 100% NP +
FYM, 100% NP + SPM, SSNM, SSNM-K and SSNM+K and three replication. The size of
each plot was 5X3 m2.All recommended package of practices were
followed during the experiment. The weather data for the experimental period
recorded at the meteorological observatory of SVPUA&T, Meerut during the
crop growing season. Soil samples from a depth of 0-15 cm were collected from
each plot of the experiment prior to transplanting and a composite sample was
drawn for determining its  physical and
chemical properties of  soils are  BD (Mgm-3 ) 1.41,
textural class sandy loam soil, O.C 
(4.00 g kg-1), pH (8.03), EC (dS m-1)
0.29,  Available N (kg ha-1)
202.0, Available P (kg ha-1) 14.25, Available K (kg ha-1)
195.0.Observed related to growth parameter viz. plant height, number of
tillers. Dry matter accumulation was recorded by selecting five hills randomly
from observation row of each plot. Test weight (g) one thousand filled grains
from each plot samples were counted and weighed on electronic balance and their
weight was expressed in grams. Quality of rice determined by amount of content
changed over RDF (recommended dose of fertilizer) in the form of protein, zinc
and iron.

Results and Discussion

            It was found that maximum plant height
was recorded with the application 150 % NPK (T6) that was
significantly higher than the other treatments except T5, T10
and T12. Neither the deletion of potassium from RDF NPK nor the
addition of super optimal level of potassium results any significant effect
over 100% NPK. Plant height differs significantly due to additional application
of 25 and 50 % NPK over 100% NPK. Number of tillers differs from 51.15 to 62.87.
Maximum number of tillers 62.87 recorded in T6 was significantly
higher than the treatments except T5, T10, T11 and
T12. It was because experimental soil was deficient in nitrogen, therefore
when additional application of nitrogen was applied, it responded in term of
taller plant, more number of effective tillers. Nitrogen is an integral part of
chlorophyll, it stimulates chlorophyll synthesis hence it accelerate rate of  assimilation (photosynthesis) which finally
results improvement in grain quality in term of protein content, similar
results have been reported by Singh, et al. (1999). Organic sources did
not result any significant effect on growth parameter. Nutrient application on
SSNM based in various treatments produce significantly higher number of tillers
in T10 than T2. Since the soil was deficit in nitrogen,
recommended dose of nitrogen was not enough to fulfill the requirement of
nitrogen for growth therefore the response of plant height and number of
tillers to additional application of nitrogen over recommended dose is well
accepted. Balance application of nutrients to the plants. SSNM practice showed
positive and favorable effect on improving almost all the growth attributes of
rice varieties (Shanker, et al., 2014).

The Grain yield
differs from 24.0 to 42.76 q ha-1.  Maximum grain yield 42.76 qha-1 produced
with the application of 150% NPK (T6) that was significantly higher
than the treatments except T5, T10, T11 and T12
(Table1). A significant effect reduction of 25% in grain yield was noticed due
to skipping of potassium from RDF. Significant increase in grain yield was
noticed due to super optimal application of potassium or NPK over RDF.fig.1.

At harvest rice straw yield differ from
36.11 to 64.14 q ha-1. The highest straw yield 64.14 q ha-1 recorded
with the application 150 % NPK (T6) was significantly higher than
the treatment except T5, T10 and T12. Straw
yield decline significantly due to deletion of K from RDF NPK while, a
significant increase was noticed due to super optimal application of potassium.

Straw yield also differ significantly due
to additional application of 25 and 50% NPK. Straw yield reduced due to
addition of crop residue while no effect was noticed of FYM and SPM. A
significant variation in T2 and T10 was noticed. Nutrient
application on SSNM base produce significantly higher straw yield than T2
where RDF NPK was applied. Harvest index which is a ratio of grain yield to
biological yield was highest in the T5 treatment with the
application of 125 % NPK while minimum 38.75 in case T2 where 100%
NPK was applied. Organic sources did not result any significant effect on grain
and straw yield. Grain yield differ significantly among T2 to T10.
Nutrient application on SSNM based produce significantly higher grain yield
than RDF. The extra yield of rice
had found through SSNM over farmer Practice (Singh, et al., 2008). Balance site specific nutrient
management in combination with micronutrients which break the yield barrier
which is similarly reported by Kumar, et al. (2015) and Manzoor, et al. (2008). SSNM strategies significantly improved
the grain yields of rice and wheat reported by Regmia, et al. (2006)

It is also clear from the table that the applications
of balanced fertilization through SSNM practice; the protein, zinc and iron
content of rice grain increased. Much more variation in zinc and iron content
over RDF was found in T10 where SSNM was applied. Percentage change over RDF in crude protein due to
application of different nutrient combinations ranged from 2.34 to 12.28 per
cent. Variation due to application of different nutrient combinations in Zn
& Fe content was 0.82 to 36.57 and 7.16 to 51.09 per cent respectively,
rice quality in respect of crude protein decline due to deletion of potassium
from RDF. Grain quality improved due to additional application of potassium
over RDF and additional application of NPK over RDF. Grain quality decline in
respect of crude protein with the application of organic sources however, an
improvement was noticed by adoption of SSNM.

Conclusions

On the basis of one year
experiment it can be concluded that nutrient management for basmati
rice through site specific nutrient management can be best option in terms of
crop productivity, soil fertility and economic feasibility, although it will require
further investigation before making any recommendation. Application of
potassium in balanced manner improves the quality of produce and maintains the
K level in soil under the intensive cropping system of Western Uttar Pradesh.