1 Ibid

2 Major (Retd.) R.K. Sharma, Military Uses of Nanotechnology (Sumit Enterprises, 2013), p. 193.

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3  Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses, Monograph by Sanjiv Tomar https://idsa.in/monograph/nanotechnology-emerging-field-for-future-military-applications , p.66.

 

4 Josep Miquel Jornet and Ian F. Akyildiza , Graphene – Based Nano-Antennas (Broadband Wireless Networking Laboratory), p. 1.

 

 

5 Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses, Monograph by Sanjiv Tomar https://idsa.in/monograph/nanotechnology-emerging-field-for-future-military-applications , p.48.

 

 

6 Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses, Monograph by Sanjiv Tomar https://idsa.in/monograph/nanotechnology-emerging-field-for-future-military-applications , p.55.

 

 

(i)    Nano Processor     It is basic processing unit which controls all nano devices of a complex electronic system.   The basic elements of Nano processor are: an appropriate number of tiny transistors, nano electric supply and nano memory (storage capacity).   NT based CNT field effect transistors (CNFET) would be far better than various exiting technologies to manufacture electronic devices such as Silicon based transistors and Slicon Germanium based MOSFET transistors solutions. It is a promising underdeveloped technology with high charge-carrier mobility, small size and lower power consumption. CNFET, nano energy supply and nano memory (CNT memory, ferroelectric RAMs, giant magneto resistance (GMR) effect based memory) will help in enhancement of overall performance and in reduction of size of the processors used in wireless communication systems.

 

(h)   Nano Power Generator     The portable energy supply is essential for all present and future combat systems. Power or energy supply systems with fastest energy generation, storage and delivery can be achieved by using NT.  Miniaturization in power supply will be required to match the size and meet the requirement of the future nanodevices. Towards this, self-powered NT based piezoelectric nanogenerators aims at powering nanodevices and nanosystems, using the energy harvested from the environment in which these systems are supposed to operate. Nanogenerators can be powered by using mechanical energy by body movements, heartbeat, ultrasonic waves and other mechanical motion of machines.6 The future wireless communication devices will very much depend upon the progress in miniaturization of the power supply .Miniaturized power or energy supply can be achieved by using nano electrodes, array of Zinc Oxide nanowires, fuel cell (use of nano porous membranes and nano structured catalysts), super capacitors (use of nano crystalline materials, CNT and aerogels) and scalable Silicon nano wire based solar cells.

 

(g)  Metamaterials           The use of magnetic nanoparticles or metamaterials for antennas fabrication will lead to reduce the size, losses and increase EM dissipation of antennas. Metamaterials are manmade materialswhich are having special properties due to their precise shape, size, three dimensional orientation and geometry.A nano patch antenna based on Graphene Nano Ribbons (GNR) and a nano dipole based on Carbon Nano Tubes ( CNT) will be able to radiate electromagnetic waves in the terahertz band( 0.1-10.0 THz).4 Metamaterials with negative refractive index can be used for next generation stealth technology for military equipment. These metamaterials consist of stacked micro or nanostructures with resonator capabilities for EM radiation such as radar, infra-red (IR) and visible light radiation. By using negative refractive index, the radiations falling on the object are neither reflected nor absorbed but guided along the surface of the structure. The bending of radiation along the surface makes the object invisible.5 Metamaterials are very important for future miniaturised antennas, filters, near field imaging and stealth technology used in wireless communication devices.

 

(f)   Spintronics      It is an emerging field of nano scale electronics which involves the detection and manipulation of electronic spin. It uses the spin of electrons to encode and transfer information with in the device. It is important for molecular communication and it also leads to manufacturing of single electron transistors. High data storage capacity, small size and low power consumption can be achieved by using Spintronics and same can be exploited in manufacturing of wireless communication devices.

 

(e)  Smart Dust (Mote)   Advancements in engineering design technology have led to reduction in size, power consumption and cost for digital circuitry, wireless communication and Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS). Smart dust or Mote is a device which contains extremely small MEMS that helps in communicate and detecting. It has power source, antenna and processor. The capabilities of Motes to form a Wide Area Sensor Network (WASN) which spread over wide geographical area .WASN will provide voice and data communication to various command and control centers through interspersed wireless networks, by using smart dust motes. This will help the soldiers in gathering and transmitting the information in real time by using smart dust deployed in the environment and on own body.

 

(d)   Foldable Mobile Phone The nanotechnology enabled mobile phone is developed by Nokia, which is known as Morph Phone. The morph phone utilizes nanotechnology to allow bending, rolling and folding. Also, the development of gold nanomesh electrode by researchers of Harvard University has led to its application in fully foldable mobile phone including the flat screen display. Such designs can easily apply to reduce the weight of complex radio sets and also reduce their power consumption.

 

(c)  Nano electromechanical Systems (NEMS)    The advancement in NEMS have led to the development of nano scale resonators, transistors and other components of radio transceiver which are used for GHz signal processing and provide data rate in Gbs. By using these devices, soldier will be able to get real time information and stream live video of his operational area for better situational awareness.  This type of system is of special importance for high data rate wireless communication systems. A team of researchers at Monash University have modelled the world’s first surface plasma amplification by simulated emission of radiations (SPASER) using graphene and nanotubes. This could mean that the communication device becomes small, efficient, and flexible and can be printed on textile/clothing.3This will provide the platform for development of wearable wireless communication devices for future soldier.

 

(b)    Nano- Electronics    Nano – electronics is basically the downsizing of electronic components in order to exploit the novel properties of the nano scale materials.  It would enable the development of more powerful computers and transistors which can be used in wireless communication systems. The development of small transistor is in accordance with the famous Moore’s Law which states that each new chip produced will have about twice as much capacity as its predecessor.2 Nano- electronics along with IT and communication is used to develop devices which are smaller in size, energy- efficient, lighter and easily deployable.

               Graphene nano electromechanical resonators and RF transistors made of      Graphene will meet the future requirements of wide spectrum wireless communication by providing more tunable radio front end components and devices operating at high frequency (60 – 100 GHz).

 • Electrode materials for super capacitors.1

• Very fast optical sensors and ultrasensitive chemical sensors

• Flexible graphene touch screens and circuits

• Radio frequency mixers and other components

 • Graphene transistors with operating frequencies over            100GHz  

(a)   Graphene Electronics   Graphene is a two?dimensional lattice of carbon atoms, with exceptional electrical, optical, thermal, chemical and mechanical properties.  Several applications have been demonstrated by it:-

 

1.    The important  potential NT concepts or hardware  for enhancement capabilities of wireless communication devices are as under :-

Potential Nanotechnology Enablers for wireless Communication