1.     Executive
Summary

The
main purpose of this essay is to select the social marketing campaign which
focused on the social media channel as a core communication platform and to evaluate
the effectiveness of the campaign. In this essay, the ‘Love Has No Labels’
campaign, conducted by Ad Council in 2016, is selected as they clearly focused
on the social media channel. Firstly, it will be discussed what is the social
marketing and what are their distinct characteristics. Secondly, the essay will
introduce the background of the campaign to describe the main social problem related
to the campaign objectives. Also, it will describe the execution of the
campaign and the objectives of behaviour change. Lastly, the analysis will be
discussed to evaluate the campaign. To assess the effectiveness, the campaign
goal, objectives and target audience will be explained, and the overall
evaluation will be described by looking at the campaign result and challenge of
the campaign.

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  2. Social Marketing

The
word social marketing was used at the first time by Phillip Kotler and Gerald Zaltman
in 1971 in their article, ‘Social Marketing:
An Approach to Planned Social Change’  in
the Journal of Marketing. (Kotler, 1971) After several
modifications, Kotler and Lee defined social marketing as “a process that applies marketing principles and techniques to create,
communicate, and deliver value in order to influence target audience behaviours
that benefit society as well as the target audience.” in 2012. (kotler, 2012) There are various
definitions about the term of social marketing, but in this essay, we followed
the definition addressed by Andreasen as “The
application of commercial marketing concepts and tools to influence the
voluntary behaviour of target audience to improve their lives or the society of
which they are a part”. (Andreasen, 2006)

 

Typically,
the main objective of social marketing is to successfully influence desire behaviours (Helmig, 2010) and social marketing
can accomplish this change behaviour through an educational campaign or
attitudinal campaign. (Andreasen, 2006) The type of behaviour
changes which social marketers typically try to encourage people can be divided
into four types – 1) Accept a new behaviour, 2) Reject a potentially
undesirable behaviour, 3) Modify a current behaviour and 4) Abandon an
undesirable behaviour. (Kotler, 2015) Also, there are
mostly three approaches are considered by social marketers to influence behaviour.
Firstly, downstream approach addresses barriers or benefits on the individual
level, while midstream approach is attempting to reach individuals who can
influence others in the target community such as family members, co-workers,
friends, and neighbours. Lastly, the upstream approach focuses on influencing
policies, regulations, and laws to influence societal behaviour change. (Mintz, 2016)  (Sacks, 2009)

 

Then, how are successful social
marketing campaigns planned and what are the key components of it? There are
various core concepts that should be considered during the planning and
implementing the campaign. According to the Andreasen, he proposed six
essential theoretical benchmarks to identifying if a social marketing process
is being used or not. (Andreasen, 2002)

 

1)      Social
marketing campaign must have clear and measurable behavioural goals

2)      Various
data collection and research methods should be used, in order to fully
understand the target audience and needs

3)      The
campaigns must be based on audience research

4)      Potential
benefits and costs of adopting a new behaviour need to be considered.
Motivation for the exchange process must be provided.

5)      The
campaigns product development should be assessed using all of the elements of
the marketing mix (4p).

6)      Competing
messages need to be identified and actively countered in order to ensure the
target audience’s attention

 

3. Social Marketing
Campaign: ‘Love Has No Labels’

 3.1 Campaign Background

The United State
is a racially and ethnically diverse country with a multicultural background. (United States
Census Bureau, 2000) 
However, the diversity brought a lot of social issues in the country
such as racism, immigration, U.S Muslims, homosexual marriage, and so on. (Pew Research
Center , 2016)
According to a study by the American Journal of Public Health, around 40 % of
people believe they have been bullied because of their identity labels such as
race, religion, gender, sexual orientation or disability. (Jessica,
2017)
A full 73% of Americans believe Muslims face a large amount of discrimination
while the percentage of American viewed as victims of bias are 63% for
African-American and 60% for Mexican-American. (Sledge, 2015) More than half of
African Americans responded that they have personally been discriminated
against because of the race in case of interacting with police, applying for
jobs, payment, and promotion. (Havard T.H. Chan, 2017) When it comes to homosexuality
issue, more than half of LGBTQ (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer)
Americans answered that they experienced slurs or offensive comments, and 57%
of respondents answered that they or their LGBTQ friend or a family member has
been harassed or threatened in the past. (NBC News, 2017) The issue of LGBT
rights was punctuated by the Supreme Court’s landmark decision in June to
legalize same-sex marriage. (Baysinger, 2015)

 

From the report
“Challenging Biased Language” linked on the website of the campaign ‘Love Has
No Labels’ which the essay will discuss on and analyse, it shows that people
are still have hidden biases and they used to say, “I didn’t mean it like that” because they do not understand that
some insensitive comments can hurt a feeling of others. Therefore, the social
marketers feel the necessity to increase awareness this social problem and encourage
behaviour change through the whole campaign.